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Credit. IStock Share Fast Facts New @HopkinsMedicine study finds African-American women with common form of hair loss at increased risk of uterine fibroids - Click to Tweet New study in @JAMADerm shows most common form of alopecia (hair loss) in African-American women associated with higher risks of uterine fibroids - Click to Tweet In a study of medical records gathered on hundreds of thousands of African-American women, Johns Hopkins researchers say they have evidence that women with a common form of hair loss have an increased chance of developing uterine leiomyomas, or fibroids.In a report on the research, published in the December 27 issue of JAMA Dermatology, the researchers call on physicians who treat women with central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (CCCA) to make patients aware that they may be at increased risk for fibroids and should be screened for the condition, particularly if they have symptoms such as heavy bleeding and pain. CCCA predominantly affects black women and is the most common form of permanent alopecia in this population.

The excess scar tissue that forms as a result of this type of hair loss may also explain the higher risk for uterine fibroids, which are characterized by fibrous growths in the lining of the womb. Crystal Aguh, M.D., assistant professor of dermatology at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, says the scarring associated with CCCA is similar to the scarring associated with excess fibrous tissue elsewhere in the body, a situation that may explain why women with this type of hair loss are at a higher risk for fibroids.People of African descent, she notes, are more prone to develop other disorders of abnormal scarring, termed fibroproliferative disorders, such as keloids (a type of raised scar after trauma), scleroderma (an autoimmune disorder marked by thickening of the skin as well as internal organs), some types of lupus and clogged arteries. During a four-year period from 2013-2017, the researchers analyzed patient data from the Johns Hopkins electronic medical record system (Epic) of 487,104 black women ages 18 and over.

The prevalence of those with fibroids was compared in patients with and without CCCA. Overall, the researchers found that 13.9 percent of women with CCCA also had a history of uterine fibroids compared to only 3.3 percent of black women without the condition. In absolute numbers, out of the 486,000 women who were reviewed, 16,212 had fibroids.Within that population, 447 had CCCA, of which 62 had fibroids.

The findings translate to a fivefold increased risk of uterine fibroids in women with CCCA, compared to age, sex and race matched controls. Aguh cautions that their study does not suggest any cause and effect relationship, or prove a common cause for both conditions. €œThe cause of the link between the two conditions remains unclear,” she says.

However, the association was strong enough, she adds, to recommend that physicians and patients be made aware of it. Women with this type of scarring alopecia should be screened not only for fibroids, but also for other disorders associated with excess fibrous tissue, Aguh says. An estimated 70 percent of white women and between 80 and 90 percent of African-American women will develop fibroids by age 50, according to the NIH, and while CCCA is likely underdiagnosed, some estimates report a prevalence of rates as high as 17 percent of black women having this condition.

The other authors on this paper were Ginette A. Okoye, M.D. Of Johns Hopkins and Yemisi Dina of Meharry Medical College.Credit.

The New England Journal of Medicine Share Fast Facts This study clears up how big an effect the mutational burden has on outcomes to immune checkpoint inhibitors across many different cancer types. - Click to Tweet The number of mutations in a tumor’s DNA is a good predictor of whether it will respond to a class of cancer immunotherapy drugs known as checkpoint inhibitors. - Click to Tweet The “mutational burden,” or the number of mutations present in a tumor’s DNA, is a good predictor of whether that cancer type will respond to a class of cancer immunotherapy drugs known as checkpoint inhibitors, a new study led by Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center researchers shows.

The finding, published in the Dec. 21 New England Journal of Medicine, could be used to guide future clinical trials for these drugs. Checkpoint inhibitors are a relatively new class of drug that helps the immune system recognize cancer by interfering with mechanisms cancer cells use to hide from immune cells.

As a result, the drugs cause the immune system to fight cancer in the same way that it would fight an . These medicines have had remarkable success in treating some types of cancers that historically have had poor prognoses, such as advanced melanoma and lung cancer. However, these therapies have had little effect on other deadly cancer types, such as pancreatic cancer and glioblastoma.

The mutational burden of certain tumor types has previously been proposed as an explanation for why certain cancers respond better than others to immune checkpoint inhibitors says study leader Mark Yarchoan, M.D., chief medical oncology fellow. Work by Dung Le, M.D., associate professor of oncology, and other researchers at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center and its Bloomberg~Kimmel Cancer Institute for Cancer Immunotherapy showed that colon cancers that carry a high number of mutations are more likely to respond to checkpoint inhibitors than those that have fewer mutations. However, exactly how big an effect the mutational burden has on outcomes to immune checkpoint inhibitors across many different cancer types was unclear.

To investigate this question, Yarchoan and colleagues Alexander Hopkins, Ph.D., research fellow, and Elizabeth Jaffee, M.D., co-director of the Skip Viragh Center for Pancreas Cancer Clinical Research and Patient Care and associate director of the Bloomberg~Kimmel Institute, combed the medical literature for the results of clinical trials using checkpoint inhibitors on various different types of cancer. They combined these findings with data on the mutational burden of thousands of tumor samples from patients with different tumor types. Analyzing 27 different cancer types for which both pieces of information were available, the researchers found a strong correlation.

The higher a cancer type’s mutational burden tends to be, the more likely it is to respond to checkpoint inhibitors. More than half of the differences in how well cancers responded to immune checkpoint inhibitors could be explained by the mutational burden of that cancer. €œThe idea that a tumor type with more mutations might be easier to treat than one with fewer sounds a little counterintuitive.

It’s one of those things that doesn’t sound right when you hear it,” says Hopkins. €œBut with immunotherapy, the more mutations you have, the more chances the immune system has to recognize the tumor.” Although this finding held true for the vast majority of cancer types they studied, there were some outliers in their analysis, says Yarchoan. For example, Merkel cell cancer, a rare and highly aggressive skin cancer, tends to have a moderate number of mutations yet responds extremely well to checkpoint inhibitors.

However, he explains, this cancer type is often caused by a propecia, which seems to encourage a strong immune response despite the cancer’s lower mutational burden. In contrast, the most common type of colorectal cancer has moderate mutational burden, yet responds poorly to checkpoint inhibitors for reasons that are still unclear. Yarchoan notes that these findings could help guide clinical trials to test checkpoint inhibitors on cancer types for which these drugs haven’t yet been tried.

Future studies might also focus on finding ways to prompt cancers with low mutational burdens to behave like those with higher mutational burdens so that they will respond better to these therapies. He and his colleagues plan to extend this line of research by investigating whether mutational burden might be a good predictor of whether cancers in individual patients might respond well to this class of immunotherapy drugs. €œThe end goal is precision medicine—moving beyond what’s true for big groups of patients to see whether we can use this information to help any given patient,” he says.

Yarchoan receives funding from the Norman &. Ruth Rales Foundation and the Conquer Cancer Foundation. Through a licensing agreement with Aduro Biotech, Jaffee has the potential to receive royalties in the future..

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Nov how much does propecia cost at cvs propecia and alcohol. 1, 2021 -- During 3 hours of oral arguments on Monday, a seeming majority of Supreme Court justices appeared receptive to blocking a Texas law that essentially outlaws abortion after 6 weeks.They seemed less certain about whether the federal government, which is also challenging the law, was within its rights to sue Texas.Senate Bill 8, which went into effect Sept. 1, allows any propecia and alcohol private citizen to file suit anywhere in the state against anyone who performs, induces, or “aids or abets” an abortion. If successful in court, the plaintiff is entitled to at least $10,000 and does not have to pay attorneys’ fees. Rather, the defendants are required to pay all the legal costs.A majority of justices in September denied an emergency request to stop the law, but they agreed to quickly hear the challenges in person.At Monday’s hearing, it propecia and alcohol appeared that a few justices who had let the law stand -- notably, conservatives Amy Coney Barrett and Brett Kavanaugh -- were now agreeing that its challengers, in particular the abortion provider Whole Woman’s Health, might have legal basis to move forward.

€œI think it's pretty likely the Court is going to do something that allows ‘someone's’ suit against SB8 to go ahead,” tweeted Raffi Melkonian, a Houston attorney, after the hearing. €œI don't know when propecia and alcohol they're going to do that.”The Supreme Court usually issues its opinions months after arguments. Since these two challenges -- Whole Woman’s Health v. Jackson and United propecia and alcohol States v. Texas -- were heard on a quicker schedule, there’s speculation that a decision could also come quickly.“The court clearly is in a hurry,” wrote Florida State University law professor Mary Ziegler, in a post to court-tracking site SCOTUSblog before the hearing.

She said the court seems propecia and alcohol to be taking the abortion issue as seriously as most Americans, and that the justices could rule before the court hears oral arguments Dec. 3 in a Mississippi case directly challenging Roe v. Wade.In addition, data shows abortions have been severely curtailed in Texas since the law took effect propecia and alcohol -- by as much as 50%, according to researchers at the University of Texas at Austin. They reported that 2,164 abortions were provided in September, compared with 4,313 in September 2020. €œThe actual provisions in this law have prevented every woman in Texas from exercising a constitutional right as declared by this court,” Justice Elena Kagan said, clarifying that it was every woman who had not made a decision by 6 weeks.“Usually, in these chilling effect cases, we're kind of guessing,” she said, adding, “Here, we're propecia and alcohol not guessing.

We know exactly what has happened as a result of this law. It has chilled everybody on the ground.”Judd Edward Stone II, an attorney propecia and alcohol with the Texas Attorney General’s Office who argued for the state, denied Kagan’s assertion.Nineteen medical organizations, including the American Medical Association, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, American Academy of Family Physicians, American Academy of Pediatrics, and the American College of Physicians filed a friend of the court brief supporting both challenges, saying the Texas law allows legislators to interfere in the patient-doctor relationship and that it limits treatment options.Texas argued that the only way to challenge the law at the federal level would be to be sued first. Marc A. Hearron, a lawyer with the Center for Reproductive Rights who argued for Whole Woman’s Health, said that was untenable.“What my friends on the other side are saying is that clinics should just violate the law” and “subject themselves to the risk that they will be forced to close their doors,” said Hearron.But, he said, even if providers decide to violate the law, “they may not find physicians, nurses, uasound technicians, staff members willing to work behind the desk because this law targets all of them.”Plus, clinics run the risk that they will become permanent defendants because the law does not prohibit multiple suits, propecia and alcohol he said.Whole Woman’s Health asked the justices to stop the law by preventing the state’s clerks from filing cases.Federal Standing Not as ClearThe U.S. Department of Justice sued Texas on Sept.

9, saying the law negated the constitutional right to an abortion.“The Act propecia and alcohol is clearly unconstitutional under longstanding Supreme Court precedent,” Attorney General Merrick Garland said at the time. At the court, U.S. Solicitor General Elizabeth B propecia and alcohol. Prelogar called it a “brazen attack” on the supremacy of federal law and said that it would open the door to other states mounting similar challenges.Kagan seemed to agree.“The entire point of this law, its purpose and its effect, is to find the chink in the armor of Ex Parte Young,” a 1908 law that “set out a basic principle of how our government is supposed to work and how people can seek review of unconstitutional state laws,” she said, decrying that “after all these many years, some geniuses came up with a way to evade the commands of that decision.”Stone waved off the concerns. €œNothing in this law even pretends that Texas courts could evade that because it can't,” he said.“Essentially, we would be inviting states, all 50 of them, with respect to theirun-preferred constitutional rights, to try to nullify the law of -- that this Court propecia and alcohol has laid down as to the content of those rights,” said Kagan.

Kavanaugh also seemed concerned about that possibility.“It could be free speech rights. It could propecia and alcohol be free exercise of religion rights. It could be Second Amendment rights if this position is accepted here,” he said, citing a brief submitted by the Firearms Policy Coalition that supported the Whole Woman’s Health challenge.Justice Neil Gorsuch seemed dubious that the Texas law would undercut anybody’s right to challenge.“Often constitutional rights, of course, can only be enforced in a defensive posture, when an individual is faced either with potential liability, punitive damages, but also, of course, civil fines -- fines and even criminal sanction, including prison time,” he said.Stone argued that the U.S. Government is “not a proper plaintiff” and did not have the right to sue Texas or any of its officials because none were involved in propecia and alcohol enforcing the law. If the federal government didn’t like the law, it should ask Congress to fix it, said Stone.After the hearing, Texas Attorney General Ken Paxton reiterated that position.

€œThe Biden Administration does not have the power to sue a state, such as Texas, just because it disagrees with a state law that protects the unborn,” he said in a statement.A ruling on the challenges will not put an end to the litigation over SB 8.“Even if the Supreme Court does rule that the abortion provider plaintiffs are allowed to sue, it is likely that there will still need to be more litigation in a federal trial court before SB 8 is actually determined to be unconstitutional and is blocked by a court order,” wrote Ian Millhiser, a Supreme Court scholar, after the hearing.A federal judge in Austin did approve the Department of Justice’s request for a temporary halt to the law in October, but days later, the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals ruled it propecia and alcohol could go back into effect while the legal questions were being pondered in the courts.Nov. 1, 2021 -- From the very first page of Ross Douthat’s new memoir, The Deep Places. A Memoir of Illness and Discovery, it’s easy propecia and alcohol to feel like you’re in the room with The New York Times columnist as he details his very painful 5-year battle with chronic Lyme disease.Douthat’s journey began in the summer of 2015 when he moved with his family from Washington, DC, to a farmhouse in Connecticut. That’s when he first acquired a mysterious sickness that left him wracked with pain and started his mission to figure out how to get well.Douthat’s vivid descriptions of the myriad traditional and alternative medicine treatments he tries and the doctors and patients he meets along the way is a must-read for anyone with a chronic disease, in this case Lyme, which affects 476,000 Americans every year, according to the CDC.WebMD sat down with Douthat to find out a little bit more about his journey and what he recommends to anyone with Lyme. WebMD.

Your book is, at times, tough to read. You don’t shy away from sharing how much pain you were in, especially the first 2 years of your illness.Douthat. At least one reviewer has said the book is harrowing low cost propecia. What I tell people is that it’s harrowing, but it’s also a page turner. It’s not a difficult read and the story ultimately offers various kinds of hope and optimism.

There’s also spiritual and psychological elements woven in that are helpful. In that sense, you can expect more than just a harrowing experience.WebMD. During the really tough days what helped in terms of support from friends?. Douthat. I think people are really good at helping other people in a crisis.What you see during earthquakes and natural disasters is that there’s this period when experts worry about a descent into lawlessness -- and yet people pull together.They’re aware they’re being asked to be heroic and supportive.

The challenge with chronic illness is there isn’t an occasion or a discrete set of tasks to help someone. That’s why I stress that if you’re trying to help someone with a chronic illness, don’t get discouraged. Often if you offer your presence and give that person an opportunity to talk and complain, it’s the best thing you can do. It also helps because it takes some pressure off the people that are complained to the most.WebMD. What’s the weirdest remedy you tried?.

Douthat. I would say the frequency machine. It’s alleged to use sound frequency to shake up and shatter bacteria. That to me was the weirdest followed by someone placing magnets all over the parts of my body where I had symptoms. I was aware that I had passed the fringes of medicine and was out beyond the frontier.WebMD.

How are you feeling today?. Douthat. I generally describe myself as 90-95% better. I’m not symptom-free.Most of my symptoms are pain, which isn’t true for a lot of chronically ill people who have severe fatigue. I was fortune to have pain instead.There are cycles where I will go for 4 to 6 weeks with pain as a minor annoyance and a week or 2 where it seems to come back.

At the most intense point in my illness I was taking 10 to 15 antibiotic pills a day. That was barely enough to keep the in check. Now, I’ll take an antibiotic every 6 to 8 weeks.It’s still so strange to think that I would be taking antibiotics after 6 years of an illness.WebMD. Why was it so important for you to share your personal story?. Douthat.

For one, I write for a living and, as a writer, you want to write interesting things. This was a very interesting thing that happened to me.To the extent that it’s good to interpret any suffering as a gift, something you can make something out of, that felt appropriate.Second, there are some things I wish I had known about the complexities of chronic illness and the importance of being your own advocate. I also now recognize the importance of modern medicine (and also its limits). I’ve figured out how to fight my way through.WebMD. What’s your biggest piece of advice for those with Lyme?.

Douthat. Don’t be passive.In this case in particular the medical community’s impulse runs to inaction because we don’t know exactly how to treat this, we don’t have double-blind controlled trials and a silver bullet.I found that most doctors have a do-no-harm attitude and they’ll say ‘Give it 3 months, give it 6 months, see how you feel.’ Sometimes that works, but for a lot of people, it doesn’t.It’s your body and it’s your life. I now know that a really severe illness like this steals your life away.You shouldn’t wait for it to come back on its own. Instead, look for doctors who can help you and talk to others about what’s worked for them.Your path to recovery will be unique, but you need to find it for yourself. It won’t come to you..

Nov great site propecia pill price. 1, 2021 -- During 3 hours of oral arguments on Monday, a seeming majority of Supreme Court justices appeared receptive to blocking a Texas law that essentially outlaws abortion after 6 weeks.They seemed less certain about whether the federal government, which is also challenging the law, was within its rights to sue Texas.Senate Bill 8, which went into effect Sept. 1, allows any private citizen to file suit anywhere in the state against anyone who performs, induces, propecia pill price or “aids or abets” an abortion. If successful in court, the plaintiff is entitled to at least $10,000 and does not have to pay attorneys’ fees. Rather, the defendants are required to pay all the legal costs.A majority of justices in September denied an emergency request to stop the law, but they agreed to quickly hear the challenges in person.At Monday’s hearing, it appeared that a few justices who had let the law stand -- notably, conservatives Amy Coney Barrett and Brett Kavanaugh -- were now agreeing that its challengers, in particular the abortion provider Whole Woman’s Health, might have legal basis to move propecia pill price forward.

€œI think it's pretty likely the Court is going to do something that allows ‘someone's’ suit against SB8 to go ahead,” tweeted Raffi Melkonian, a Houston attorney, after the hearing. €œI don't know when they're propecia pill price going to do that.”The Supreme Court usually issues its opinions months after arguments. Since these two challenges -- Whole Woman’s Health v. Jackson and propecia pill price United States v. Texas -- were heard on a quicker schedule, there’s speculation that a decision could also come quickly.“The court clearly is in a hurry,” wrote Florida State University law professor Mary Ziegler, in a post to court-tracking site SCOTUSblog before the hearing.

She said the court seems to be taking the abortion issue as seriously as most Americans, and that the propecia pill price justices could rule before the court hears oral arguments Dec. 3 in a Mississippi case directly challenging Roe v. Wade.In addition, data shows abortions have propecia pill price been severely curtailed in Texas since the law took effect -- by as much as 50%, according to researchers at the University of Texas at Austin. They reported that 2,164 abortions were provided in September, compared with 4,313 in September 2020. €œThe actual provisions in this law have propecia pill price prevented every woman in Texas from exercising a constitutional right as declared by this court,” Justice Elena Kagan said, clarifying that it was every woman who had not made a decision by 6 weeks.“Usually, in these chilling effect cases, we're kind of guessing,” she said, adding, “Here, we're not guessing.

We know exactly what has happened as a result of this law. It has chilled everybody on the ground.”Judd Edward Stone II, an attorney with the Texas Attorney General’s Office who argued for the state, denied Kagan’s assertion.Nineteen medical organizations, including the American Medical Association, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, American Academy of Family Physicians, American Academy of Pediatrics, and the American College of Physicians filed a friend of the court brief supporting both challenges, saying the Texas law allows legislators to interfere in the patient-doctor propecia pill price relationship and that it limits treatment options.Texas argued that the only way to challenge the law at the federal level would be to be sued first. Marc A. Hearron, a lawyer with the Center for Reproductive Rights who argued for Whole Woman’s Health, said that was untenable.“What my friends on the other side are saying is that clinics should propecia pill price just violate the law” and “subject themselves to the risk that they will be forced to close their doors,” said Hearron.But, he said, even if providers decide to violate the law, “they may not find physicians, nurses, uasound technicians, staff members willing to work behind the desk because this law targets all of them.”Plus, clinics run the risk that they will become permanent defendants because the law does not prohibit multiple suits, he said.Whole Woman’s Health asked the justices to stop the law by preventing the state’s clerks from filing cases.Federal Standing Not as ClearThe U.S. Department of Justice sued Texas on Sept.

9, saying the law negated the constitutional right to an propecia pill price abortion.“The Act is clearly unconstitutional under longstanding Supreme Court precedent,” Attorney General Merrick Garland said at the time. At the court, U.S. Solicitor General Elizabeth B propecia pill price. Prelogar called it a “brazen attack” on the supremacy of federal law and said that it would open the door to other states mounting similar challenges.Kagan seemed to agree.“The entire point of this law, its purpose and its effect, is to find the chink in the armor of Ex Parte Young,” a 1908 law that “set out a basic principle of how our government is supposed to work and how people can seek review of unconstitutional state laws,” she said, decrying that “after all these many years, some geniuses came up with a way to evade the commands of that decision.”Stone waved off the concerns. €œNothing in this law even pretends propecia pill price that Texas courts could evade that because it can't,” he said.“Essentially, we would be inviting states, all 50 of them, with respect to theirun-preferred constitutional rights, to try to nullify the law of -- that this Court has laid down as to the content of those rights,” said Kagan.

Kavanaugh also seemed concerned about that possibility.“It could be free speech rights. It could be propecia pill price free exercise of religion rights. It could be Second Amendment rights if this position is accepted here,” he said, citing a brief submitted by the Firearms Policy Coalition that supported the Whole Woman’s Health challenge.Justice Neil Gorsuch seemed dubious that the Texas law would undercut anybody’s right to challenge.“Often constitutional rights, of course, can only be enforced in a defensive posture, when an individual is faced either with potential liability, punitive damages, but also, of course, civil fines -- fines and even criminal sanction, including prison time,” he said.Stone argued that the U.S. Government is “not a proper plaintiff” and did not have the propecia pill price right to sue Texas or any of its officials because none were involved in enforcing the law. If the federal government didn’t like the law, it should ask Congress to fix it, said Stone.After the hearing, Texas Attorney General Ken Paxton reiterated that position.

€œThe Biden Administration does not have the power to sue a state, such as Texas, just because it disagrees with a state law that protects the unborn,” he said in a statement.A ruling on the challenges will propecia pill price not put an end to the litigation over SB 8.“Even if the Supreme Court does rule that the abortion provider plaintiffs are allowed to sue, it is likely that there will still need to be more litigation in a federal trial court before SB 8 is actually determined to be unconstitutional and is blocked by a court order,” wrote Ian Millhiser, a Supreme Court scholar, after the hearing.A federal judge in Austin did approve the Department of Justice’s request for a temporary halt to the law in October, but days later, the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals ruled it could go back into effect while the legal questions were being pondered in the courts.Nov. 1, 2021 -- From the very first page of Ross Douthat’s new memoir, The Deep Places. A Memoir of Illness and Discovery, it’s easy to feel like you’re in propecia pill price the room with The New York Times columnist as he details his very painful 5-year battle with chronic Lyme disease.Douthat’s journey began in the summer of 2015 when he moved with his family from Washington, DC, to a farmhouse in Connecticut. That’s when he first acquired a mysterious sickness that left him wracked with pain and started his mission to figure out how to get well.Douthat’s vivid descriptions of the myriad traditional and alternative medicine treatments he tries and the doctors and patients he meets along the way is a must-read for anyone with a chronic disease, in this case Lyme, which affects 476,000 Americans every year, according to the CDC.WebMD sat down with Douthat to find out a little bit more about his journey and what he recommends to anyone with Lyme. WebMD.

Your book is, at times, tough to read. You don’t shy away from sharing how much pain you were in, especially the first 2 years of your illness.Douthat. At least one reviewer has said the book is harrowing. What I tell people is that it’s harrowing, but it’s also a page turner. It’s not a difficult read and the story ultimately offers various kinds of hope and optimism.

There’s also spiritual and psychological elements woven in that are helpful. In that sense, you can expect more than just a harrowing experience.WebMD. During the really tough days what helped in terms of support from friends?. Douthat. I think people are really good at helping other people in a crisis.What you see during earthquakes and natural disasters is that there’s this period when experts worry about a descent into lawlessness -- and yet people pull together.They’re aware they’re being asked to be heroic and supportive.

The challenge with chronic illness is there isn’t an occasion or a discrete set of tasks to help someone. That’s why I stress that if you’re trying to help someone with a chronic illness, don’t get discouraged. Often if you offer your presence and give that person an opportunity to talk and complain, it’s the best thing you can do. It also helps because it takes some pressure off the people that are complained to the most.WebMD. What’s the weirdest remedy you tried?.

Douthat. I would say the frequency machine. It’s alleged to use sound frequency to shake up and shatter bacteria. That to me was the weirdest followed by someone placing magnets all over the parts of my body where I had symptoms. I was aware that I had passed the fringes of medicine and was out beyond the frontier.WebMD.

How are you feeling today?. Douthat. I generally describe myself as 90-95% better. I’m not symptom-free.Most of my symptoms are pain, which isn’t true for a lot of chronically ill people who have severe fatigue. I was fortune to have pain instead.There are cycles where I will go for 4 to 6 weeks with pain as a minor annoyance and a week or 2 where it seems to come back.

At the most intense point in my illness I was taking 10 to 15 antibiotic pills a day. That was barely enough to keep the in check. Now, I’ll take an antibiotic every 6 to 8 weeks.It’s still so strange to think that I would be taking antibiotics after 6 years of an illness.WebMD. Why was it so important for you to share your personal story?. Douthat.

For one, I write for a living and, as a writer, you want to write interesting things. This was a very interesting thing that happened to me.To the extent that it’s good to interpret any suffering as a gift, something you can make something out of, that felt appropriate.Second, there are some things I wish I had known about the complexities of chronic illness and the importance of being your own advocate. I also now recognize the importance of modern medicine (and also its limits). I’ve figured out how to fight my way through.WebMD. What’s your biggest piece of advice for those with Lyme?.

Douthat. Don’t be passive.In this case in particular the medical community’s impulse runs to inaction because we don’t know exactly how to treat this, we don’t have double-blind controlled trials and a silver bullet.I found that most doctors have a do-no-harm attitude and they’ll say ‘Give it 3 months, give it 6 months, see how you feel.’ Sometimes that works, but for a lot of people, it doesn’t.It’s your body and it’s your life. I now know that a really severe illness like this steals your life away.You shouldn’t wait for it to come back on its own. Instead, look for doctors who can help you and talk to others about what’s worked for them.Your path to recovery will be unique, but you need to find it for yourself. It won’t come to you..

What is Propecia?

FINASTERIDE is used for the treatment of certain types of male hair loss (Alopecia). Finasteride is not for use in women.

Propecia cancer

Start Further https://makeupbynatashalouise.co.uk/makeup-by-natasha-louise/my-new-pop-up-hair-and-makeup-bar/ Info William propecia cancer N. Parham at (410) 786-4669. End Further Info End Preamble Start Supplemental Information Contents This notice sets out a summary of the use and burden associated with the following information collections. More detailed information propecia cancer can be found in each collection's supporting statement and associated materials (see ADDRESSES).

CMS-10241 Survey of Retail Prices CMS-10545 Outcome and Assessment Information Set (OASIS) OASIS-D Under the PRA (44 U.S.C. 3501-3520), federal agencies must obtain approval from the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for each collection of information they conduct or sponsor. The term “collection of information” is defined in 44 propecia cancer U.S.C. 3502(3) and 5 CFR 1320.3(c) and includes agency requests or requirements that members of the public submit reports, keep records, or provide information to a third party.

Section 3506(c)(2)(A) of the PRA requires federal agencies to publish a 60-day notice in the Federal Register concerning each proposed collection of information, including each proposed extension or reinstatement of an existing collection of information, before submitting the collection to OMB for approval. To comply with this propecia cancer requirement, CMS is publishing this notice. Information Collection 1. Type of Information Collection Request.

Revision of a currently approved propecia cancer collection. Title of Information Collection. Survey of Retail Prices. Use.

This information collection request provides for a survey of the average acquisition costs of all covered outpatient drugs purchased by retail community pharmacies. CMS may contract with a vendor to conduct monthly surveys of retail prices for covered outpatient drugs. Such prices represent a nationwide average of consumer purchase prices, net of discounts and rebates. The contractor shall provide notification when a drug product becomes generally available and that the contract include such terms and conditions as the Secretary shall specify, including a requirement that the vendor monitor the marketplace.

CMS has developed a National Average Drug Acquisition Cost (NADAC) for states to consider when developing reimbursement methodology. The NADAC is a pricing benchmark that is based on the national average costs that pharmacies pay to acquire Medicaid covered outpatient drugs. This pricing benchmark is based on drug acquisition costs collected directly from pharmacies through a nationwide survey process. This survey is conducted on a monthly basis to ensure that the NADAC reference file remains current and up-to-date.

Form Number. CMS-10241 (OMB control number 0938-1041). Frequency. Monthly.

Affected Public. Private sector (Business or other for-profits). Number of Respondents. 72,000.

Total Annual Responses. 72,000. Total Annual Hours. 36,000.

(For policy questions regarding this collection contact. Lisa Shochet at 410-786-5445.) 2. Type of Information Collection Request. Revision of a currently approved collection.

Title of Information Collection. Outcome and Assessment Information Set (OASIS) OASIS-D. Use. Due to the hair loss treatment related Public Health Emergency, the next version of the Outcome and Assessment Information Set (OASIS), version E planned for implementation January 1, 2021, was delayed.

This request is for the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) approval to extend the current OASIS-D expiration date in order for home health agencies to continue data collection required for participation in the Medicare program. The current version of the OASIS-D, data item set was approved by OMB on December 6, 2018 and implemented on January 1, 2019. This request includes updated calculations using 2020 data for wages, number of home health agencies and number of OASIS assessments at each time point. Form Number.

CMS-10545 (OMB control number. 0938-1279). Frequency. Occasionally.

Affected Public. Private Sector (Business or other for-profit and Not-for-profit institutions). Number of Respondents. 11,400.

Total Annual Responses. 17,932,166. Total Annual Hours.

1. Electronically. You may send your comments electronically to http://www.regulations.gov. Follow the instructions for “Comment or Submission” or “More Search Options” to find the information collection document(s) that are accepting comments. 2.

By regular mail. You may mail written comments to the following address. CMS, Office of Strategic Operations and Regulatory Affairs, Division of Regulations Development, Attention. Document Identifier/OMB Control Number. ____, Room C4-26-05, 7500 Security Boulevard, Baltimore, Maryland 21244-1850.

To obtain copies of a supporting statement and any related forms for the proposed collection(s) summarized in this notice, you may make your request using one of following. 1. Access CMS' website address at website address at https://www.cms.gov/​Regulations-and-Guidance/​Legislation/​PaperworkReductionActof1995/​PRA-Listing.html. Start Further Info William N. Parham at (410) 786-4669.

End Further Info End Preamble Start Supplemental Information Contents This notice sets out a summary of the use and burden associated with the following information collections. More detailed information can be found in each collection's supporting statement and associated materials (see ADDRESSES). CMS-10241 Survey of Retail Prices CMS-10545 Outcome and Assessment Information Set (OASIS) OASIS-D Under the PRA (44 U.S.C. 3501-3520), federal agencies must obtain approval from the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for each collection of information they conduct or sponsor. The term “collection of information” is defined in 44 U.S.C.

3502(3) and 5 CFR 1320.3(c) and includes agency requests or requirements that members of the public submit reports, keep records, or provide information to a third party. Section 3506(c)(2)(A) of the PRA requires federal agencies to publish a 60-day notice in the Federal Register concerning each proposed collection of information, including each proposed extension or reinstatement of an existing collection of information, before submitting the collection to OMB for approval. To comply with this requirement, CMS is publishing this notice. Information Collection 1. Type of Information Collection Request.

Revision of a currently approved collection. Title of Information Collection. Survey of Retail Prices. Use. This information collection request provides for a survey of the average acquisition costs of all covered outpatient drugs purchased by retail community pharmacies.

CMS may contract with a vendor to conduct monthly surveys of retail prices for covered outpatient drugs. Such prices represent a nationwide average of consumer purchase prices, net of discounts and rebates. The contractor shall provide notification when a drug product becomes generally available and that the contract include such terms and conditions as the Secretary shall specify, including a requirement that the vendor monitor the marketplace. CMS has developed a National Average Drug Acquisition Cost (NADAC) for states to consider when developing reimbursement methodology. The NADAC is a pricing benchmark that is based on the national average costs that pharmacies pay to acquire Medicaid covered outpatient drugs.

This pricing benchmark is based on drug acquisition costs collected directly from pharmacies through a nationwide survey process. This survey is conducted on a monthly basis to ensure that the NADAC reference file remains current and up-to-date. Form Number. CMS-10241 (OMB control number 0938-1041). Frequency.

Monthly. Affected Public. Private sector (Business or other for-profits). Number of Respondents. 72,000.

Total Annual Responses. 72,000. Total Annual Hours. 36,000. (For policy questions regarding this collection contact.

Lisa Shochet at 410-786-5445.) 2. Type of Information Collection Request. Revision of a currently approved collection. Title of Information Collection. Outcome and Assessment Information Set (OASIS) OASIS-D.

Use. Due to the hair loss treatment related Public Health Emergency, the next version of the Outcome and Assessment Information Set (OASIS), version E planned for implementation January 1, 2021, was delayed. This request is for the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) approval to extend the current OASIS-D expiration date in order for home health agencies to continue data collection required for participation in the Medicare program. The current version of the OASIS-D, data item set was approved by OMB on December 6, 2018 and implemented on January 1, 2019.

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In response to the faster-than-expected rate of vaccination, the NSW Government will further ease rules for those who are fully vaccinated by bringing forward many can you buy propecia of the roadmap changes scheduled for 1 December to Monday, 8 November. From 8 can you buy propecia November there will be no limit on visitors to a home, no rules for outdoor gatherings with fewer than 1,000 people, and indoor swimming pools will re-open for all purposes. Businesses will be able to welcome in more fully vaccinated customers with all premises to move to 1 person per 2 sqm rule, and nightclubs will be able to re-open dancefloors.

Caps will be removed can you buy propecia for settings other than gym and dance classes (where the 20 person cap for classes will remain) and replaced by density limits or 100 per cent fixed seated capacity for major recreation outdoor facilities (including stadiums, racecourses, theme parks and zoos) and entertainment facilities (including cinemas and theatres). These freedoms will only be available for people who are fully vaccinated, including those who have medical exemptions can you buy propecia and children under the age of 16. hair loss treatment Safe check-ins and proof of vaccination will still be required.

Those who are can you buy propecia not fully vaccinated must still abide by pre-roadmap restrictions until the State reaches the 95 per cent double vaccination target, or 15 December, whichever happens first. The current can you buy propecia settings for masks, which apply to everyone, will remain in place until the State reaches the 95 per cent double vaccination target, or 15 December, whichever happens first. To maintain high levels of immunity across the community, NSW Health has commenced rolling out a booster vaccination program at its clinics to individuals aged 18 and older who received their second dose of a hair loss treatment 6 months or more ago.

Pfizer will be can you buy propecia used for boosters regardless of the hair loss treatment received for the first or second dose. Premier Dominic Perrottet said bringing forward the easing of restrictions was only possible because of the State’s high vaccinations rates and the roll out of can you buy propecia booster shots. €œEverybody has done an incredible job to ensure NSW can ease restrictions in a safe and considered way earlier than we planned,” Mr Perrottet said.

€œWe are on track can you buy propecia to reach 90 per cent double vaccination weeks ahead of schedule and this is a testament to everybody across NSW and especially our health workers. €œThere is still a long way to go but the NSW Government is standing with the community and continuing to do everything can you buy propecia that we can, including booster shots, to keep people safe as we open up.” Deputy Premier Paul Toole said regional NSW had rolled up their sleeves for vaccinations and we’re now ready to welcome back visitors. €œRegions across NSW answered the call when we asked them to come forward and get vaccinated.

Thanks to the community for coming out and getting can you buy propecia the jab,” Mr Toole said. €œThe time is right now for regional businesses to welcome back visitors safely in every town across the state and get tills turning over.” Minister for Jobs, Investment, Tourism and Western Sydney Stuart Ayres said reaching the 90 per cent target will be a significant milestone in the state’s recovery. €œWe are inching closer and closer to returning to many of our pre-propecia activities, and this latest easing of restrictions will can you buy propecia be welcome news for hundreds of businesses ready to re-open, expand their operations, and welcome back more customers,” Mr Ayres said.

Health Minister Brad Hazzard said NSW has amongst the most vaccinated populations in the world and rolling out booster shots would continue to maintain can you buy propecia that advantage. €œWe are amongst the best in the world when it comes to vaccinations but we cannot forget that hair loss treatment will continue to circulate in the community and we must remain vigilant,” Mr Hazzard said. €œBoosters are a key priority can you buy propecia moving forward and we continue to work closely with the Commonwealth on the hair loss treatment vaccination roll out.

I want to encourage anyone who is yet to be vaccinated to make a booking as soon as possible.” More information about the can you buy propecia 90 per cent easing of restrictions at nsw.gov.au. You can book your hair loss treatment or your booster shot, via NSW Government - Where and how to get your hair loss treatment vaccination.The State’s rapid rate of second dose vaccinations means that next Monday, 18 October is firming as the day that the Reopening NSW Roadmap’s 80 per cent settings will come into effect for those who are fully vaccinated.Community sport will resume, more friends and family will be reunited, and there will no longer be a cap on guests at weddings and funerals. Masks will also no longer be required in offices, can you buy propecia and drinking while standing and dancing will be permitted indoors and outdoors at hospitality venues.From 1 November bookings for hospitality venues will no longer be capped.Also from 1 November, the NSW Government will remove quarantine requirements and caps for overseas arrivals who the Commonwealth Government recognises as fully vaccinated with a TGA-approved treatment, helping Australians stranded abroad get home before the end of the year.

Further advice about testing requirements for arrivals will be provided in the coming days.Fully vaccinated travellers already in quarantine will also complete their quarantine re- quirements on November 1, even if it is less can you buy propecia than 14-days.Overseas arrivals who are not fully vaccinated will be capped at 210 people per week, and will be required to undergo mandatory 14-days hotel quarantine.Travel between Greater Sydney (including the Blue Mountains, Wollongong, Shellharbour and the Central Coast) and Regional NSW will also be permitted from 1 November, to allow people in the regions more time to receive their second treatment.To support regional businesses likely to be impacted by this change the NSW Gov- ernment will defer the second taper of the JobSaver program until October 31. Eligible regional businesses will receive 30 per cent of weekly payroll, before tapering payments to the scheduled 15 per cent from November 1.Premier Dominic Perrottet said the easing of restrictions and return of overseas travellers would help reunite families and be a significant boost for the economy.“We have reached this vaccination milestone quicker than anyone thought we could, and that is a testament to the hard work of people across the State turning out to get vaccinated,” Mr Perrottet said.“Welcoming back fully vaccinated travellers will not only mean families and friends can be home in time for Christmas, it will also give our economy a major boost.”Deputy Premier Paul Toole said the tough decision had been made to delay travel be- tween Regional NSW and Greater Sydney, with the NSW Government extending the JobSaver program for regional businesses. By 1 November, it’s expected more than 77 per cent of regional LGAs will be fully vaccinated.“Everyone has done a brilliant job of getting vaccinated and rates are rising fast can you buy propecia.

However we have looked at the health modelling and listened to feedback from regional communities who want more time to get their double dose vaccination rates up as high as possible before they welcome back visitors,” Mr Toole said.“We know businesses in regional NSW were getting ready to welcome people back, but it’s important we get this right so that we can have greater can you buy propecia confidence the treatments will do their job – and that when we re-open travel to the regions, they can remain open and that businesses have continued support in the meantime. We thank people for their patience.”Minister for Jobs, Investment, Tourism and Western Sydney Stuart Ayres welcomed the 80 per cent reopening and recognised it as an important step on the road to recovery.“We are opening up locally and we are opening up to the world. Now is a time for people to come together in safe way whether it be returning home from overseas or enjoying your favourite local venue,” Mr Ayres said.All premises continue to operate at one person per 4sqm indoors and one person per 2sqm outdoors.Health Minister Brad Hazzard said the NSW community had done an extraordinary job to reach the 80 per cent double dose vaccination target can you buy propecia and was leading Australia out of the propecia.“The people of NSW have pulled together to achieve this fantastic outcome and bring us closer to life as we knew it before the propecia, but we’re not there yet,” Mr Hazzard said.“We can’t forget that hair loss treatment is still circulating amongst us in NSW and we need to keep getting vaccinated to push the double dose rates even higher.

We want to get as close to 100 per cent double vaccination as possible to keep everyone safe.”NSW residents will still need to comply with hair loss treatment-Safe check-ins and provide proof of vaccination to staff in most settings.More restrictions will be relaxed on 1 December, as previously announced in the Reopening NSW Roadmap.To find out how to download a copy of your vaccination certificate visit Services Australia.If you are not booked in for a hair loss treatment, please book an appointment as soon possible.For the latest information and to view the 80 per cent Roadmap and lifting of restrictions, visit nsw.gov.au.

In response propecia pill price to the faster-than-expected rate of vaccination, the NSW Government will further ease rules for those who are fully vaccinated by bringing forward many of the roadmap changes scheduled for 1 December to Monday, 8 November. From 8 November there will be no limit on visitors propecia pill price to a home, no rules for outdoor gatherings with fewer than 1,000 people, and indoor swimming pools will re-open for all purposes. Businesses will be able to welcome in more fully vaccinated customers with all premises to move to 1 person per 2 sqm rule, and nightclubs will be able to re-open dancefloors. Caps will be removed for settings other than gym and dance classes (where the 20 person cap for classes will remain) and replaced by density limits or 100 per cent fixed seated capacity for major recreation outdoor facilities (including stadiums, racecourses, propecia pill price theme parks and zoos) and entertainment facilities (including cinemas and theatres). These freedoms will only be available for people who are fully vaccinated, including those who have medical exemptions and children under propecia pill price the age of 16.

hair loss treatment Safe check-ins and proof of vaccination will still be required. Those who are not fully vaccinated must still abide by pre-roadmap restrictions until propecia pill price the State reaches the 95 per cent double vaccination target, or 15 December, whichever happens first. The current settings for masks, which apply to everyone, will remain in place until the State reaches the 95 per cent double vaccination target, or 15 December, whichever happens propecia pill price first. To maintain high levels of immunity across the community, NSW Health has commenced rolling out a booster vaccination program at its clinics to individuals aged 18 and older who received their second dose of a hair loss treatment 6 months or more ago. Pfizer will be used for boosters regardless of the hair loss treatment propecia pill price treatment received for the first or second dose.

Premier Dominic Perrottet said bringing forward the easing of restrictions was only possible because of the State’s high vaccinations rates and the roll propecia pill price out of booster shots. €œEverybody has done an incredible job to ensure NSW can ease restrictions in a safe and considered way earlier than we planned,” Mr Perrottet said. €œWe are on track to reach 90 per cent double vaccination weeks ahead of schedule and this is a testament to everybody across propecia pill price NSW and especially our health workers. €œThere is still a long way to go but the NSW Government is standing with propecia pill price the community and continuing to do everything that we can, including booster shots, to keep people safe as we open up.” Deputy Premier Paul Toole said regional NSW had rolled up their sleeves for vaccinations and we’re now ready to welcome back visitors. €œRegions across NSW answered the call when we asked them to come forward and get vaccinated.

Thanks to the community for propecia pill price coming out and getting the jab,” Mr Toole said. €œThe time is right now for regional businesses to welcome back visitors safely in every town across the state and get tills turning over.” Minister for Jobs, Investment, Tourism and Western Sydney Stuart Ayres said reaching the 90 per cent target will be a significant milestone in the state’s recovery. €œWe are inching closer and closer to returning to many of our propecia pill price pre-propecia activities, and this latest easing of restrictions will be welcome news for hundreds of businesses ready to re-open, expand their operations, and welcome back more customers,” Mr Ayres said. Health Minister Brad Hazzard said NSW has amongst the most vaccinated populations in propecia pill price the world and rolling out booster shots would continue to maintain that advantage. €œWe are amongst the best in the world when it comes to vaccinations but we cannot forget that hair loss treatment will continue to circulate in the community and we must remain vigilant,” Mr Hazzard said.

€œBoosters are a key priority moving forward and we continue to propecia pill price work closely with the Commonwealth on the hair loss treatment vaccination roll out. I want to encourage anyone who is yet to be vaccinated to make a booking propecia pill price as soon as possible.” More information about the 90 per cent easing of restrictions at nsw.gov.au. You can book your hair loss treatment or your booster shot, via NSW Government - Where and how to get your hair loss treatment vaccination.The State’s rapid rate of second dose vaccinations means that next Monday, 18 October is firming as the day that the Reopening NSW Roadmap’s 80 per cent settings will come into effect for those who are fully vaccinated.Community sport will resume, more friends and family will be reunited, and there will no longer be a cap on guests at weddings and funerals. Masks will also no longer be required in offices, and drinking while standing propecia pill price and dancing will be permitted indoors and outdoors at hospitality venues.From 1 November bookings for hospitality venues will no longer be capped.Also from 1 November, the NSW Government will remove quarantine requirements and caps for overseas arrivals who the Commonwealth Government recognises as fully vaccinated with a TGA-approved treatment, helping Australians stranded abroad get home before the end of the year. Further advice about testing requirements for arrivals will be provided in the coming days.Fully vaccinated travellers already in quarantine will also complete their quarantine re- quirements on November 1, even if it is less than 14-days.Overseas arrivals who are not fully vaccinated will be capped at 210 people per week, and will be required to undergo mandatory 14-days hotel quarantine.Travel between Greater Sydney (including the Blue Mountains, Wollongong, Shellharbour and the Central Coast) and Regional NSW will also be permitted from 1 November, to allow people in the regions more time to propecia pill price receive their second treatment.To support regional businesses likely to be impacted by this change the NSW Gov- ernment will defer the second taper of the JobSaver program until October 31.

Eligible regional businesses will receive 30 per cent of weekly payroll, before tapering payments to the scheduled 15 per cent from November 1.Premier Dominic Perrottet said the easing of restrictions and return of overseas travellers would help reunite families and be a significant boost for the economy.“We have reached this vaccination milestone quicker than anyone thought we could, and that is a testament to the hard work of people across the State turning out to get vaccinated,” Mr Perrottet said.“Welcoming back fully vaccinated travellers will not only mean families and friends can be home in time for Christmas, it will also give our economy a major boost.”Deputy Premier Paul Toole said the tough decision had been made to delay travel be- tween Regional NSW and Greater Sydney, with the NSW Government extending the JobSaver program for regional businesses. By 1 November, it’s expected more than 77 per cent of regional LGAs will be fully vaccinated.“Everyone has done a brilliant job propecia pill price of getting vaccinated and rates are rising fast. However we have looked at the health modelling and listened to feedback from regional communities who want more time to get their double dose vaccination rates up as high as possible before they welcome back visitors,” Mr Toole said.“We know businesses in regional NSW were getting ready to welcome people back, but it’s important we get this right so that we can have greater confidence the treatments will do their job – and that when we re-open travel to the regions, they can remain open and that businesses have continued support in the propecia pill price meantime. We thank people for their patience.”Minister for Jobs, Investment, Tourism and Western Sydney Stuart Ayres welcomed the 80 per cent reopening and recognised it as an important step on the road to recovery.“We are opening up locally and we are opening up to the world. Now is a time for people to come together in safe way whether it be returning home from overseas or enjoying your favourite local venue,” Mr Ayres said.All premises continue to operate at one person per 4sqm indoors and one person per 2sqm outdoors.Health Minister Brad Hazzard said the NSW community had done an extraordinary job to reach the 80 per cent double dose vaccination target and was leading Australia out of the propecia.“The people of NSW have pulled together to achieve this fantastic outcome and bring us closer to life as we knew it before the propecia, but we’re not there yet,” Mr Hazzard said.“We can’t forget that hair loss treatment is still circulating amongst us in NSW and we need to keep propecia pill price getting vaccinated to push the double dose rates even higher.

We want to get as close to 100 per cent double vaccination as possible to keep everyone safe.”NSW residents will still need to comply with hair loss treatment-Safe check-ins and provide proof of vaccination to staff in most settings.More restrictions will be relaxed on 1 December, as previously announced in the Reopening NSW Roadmap.To find out how to download a copy of your vaccination certificate visit Services Australia.If you are not booked in for a hair loss treatment, please book an appointment as soon possible.For the latest information and to view the 80 per cent Roadmap and lifting of restrictions, visit nsw.gov.au.

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See Medicare Rights Center buy propecia online usa chart on Extra Help Income and Asset Limits - updated annually You can apply for Extra Help and MSP at the same time through SSA. SSA will forward your Extra Help application data to the New York State Department of Health, who will use that data to assess your eligibility for MSP. Individuals who apply for LIS through SSA and those who are deemed into LIS should receive written confirmation of their Extra Help status through SSA.

Of course, individuals buy propecia online usa who apply for LIS through SSA and are found ineligible are also entitled to a written notice and have appeal rights. Benefits of Extra Help 1) Assistance with Part D cost-sharing The Extra Help program provides a subsidy which covers most (but not all) of beneficiary’s cost sharing obligations. Extra Help beneficiaries do not have to worry about hitting the “donut hole” – the LIS subsidy continues to cover them through the donut hole and into catastrophic coverage.

Full Extra Help buy propecia online usa. LIS beneficiaries with incomes up to 135% FPL are generally eligible for "full" Extra Help -- meaning they pay no Part D deductible, no charge for monthly premiums up to the benchmark amount, and fixed, relatively low co-pays (between $1.30 and $8.95 for 2020 depending on the person's income level and the tier category of the drug. Medicaid beneficiaries in nursing homes, waiver programs, or managed long term care have $0 co-pays).

Full Extra Help beneficiaries who hit buy propecia online usa the catastrophic coverage limit have $0 co-pays. See current co-pay levels here. Partial Extra Help.

Beneficiaries between 135%-150% FPL receive "partial" Extra Help, which limits buy propecia online usa the Part D deductible to $89 (2020 figure - click here for updated chart). Sets sliding scale fees for monthly premiums. And limits co-pays to 15%, until the beneficiary reaches the catastrophic coverage limit, at which point co-pays are limited to a $8.95 maximum (2020 or see current amount here) or 5% of the drug cost, whichever is greater.

2) Facilitated enrollment into a Part D plan Extra Help recipients who buy propecia online usa aren’t already enrolled in a Part D plan and don’t want to choose one on their own will be automatically enrolled into a benchmark plan by CMS. This facilitated enrollment ensures that Extra Help recipients have Part D coverage. However, the downside to facilitated enrollment is that the plan may not be the best “fit” for the beneficiary, if it doesn’t cover all his/her drugs, assesses a higher tier level for covered drugs than other comparable plans, and/or requires the beneficiary to go through administrative hoops like prior authorization, quantity limits and/or step therapy.

Fortunately, Extra Help recipients can always enroll in a buy propecia online usa new plan … see #3 below. 3) Continuous special enrollment period Extra Help recipients have a continuous special enrollment period, meaning that they can switch plans at any time. They are not “locked into” the annual open enrollment period (October 15-December 7).

NOTE buy propecia online usa. This changed in 2019. Starting in 2019, those with Extra Help will no longer have a continuous enrollment period.

Instead, Extra Help recipients will buy propecia online usa be eligible to enroll no more than once per quarter for each of the first three quarters of the year. 4) No late enrollment penalty Non LIS beneficiaries generally face a premium penalty (higher monthly premium) if they delayed their enrollment into Part D, meaning that they didn’t enroll when they were initially eligible and didn’t have “creditable coverage.” Extra Help recipients do not have to worry about this problem – the late enrollment penalty provision does not apply to LIS beneficiaries. 1) For “deemed” beneficiaries (Medicaid/Medicare Savings Program recipients).

Extra Help status lasts at least until the end of the current calendar year, even if the buy propecia online usa individual loses their Medicaid or Medicare Savings Program coverage during that year. Individuals who receive Medicaid or a Medicare Savings Program any month between July and December keep their LIS status for the remainder of that calendar year and the following year. Getting Medicaid coverage for even just a short period of time (ie, meeting a spenddown for just one month) can help ensure that the individual obtains Extra Help coverage for at least 6 months, and possibly as long as 18 months.

TIP buy propecia online usa. People with a high spend-down who want to receive Medicaid for just one month in order to get Extra Help for 6-18 months can use past medical bills to meet their spend-down for that one month. There are different rules for using past paid medical bills verses past unpaid medical bills.

For information see buy propecia online usa Spend down training materials. Individuals who are losing their deemed status at the end of a calendar year because they are no longer receiving Medicaid or the Medicare Savings Program should be notified in advance by SSA, and given an opportunity to file an Extra Help application through SSA. 2) For “non-deemed” beneficiaries (those who filed their LIS applications through SSA) Non-deemed beneficiaries retain their LIS status until/unless SSA does a redetermination and finds the individual ineligible for Extra Help.

There are no reporting requirements per se in the Extra Help buy propecia online usa program, but beneficiaries must respond to SSA’s redetermination request. What to do if the Part D plan doesn't know that someone has Extra Help Sometimes there are lengthy delays between the date that someone is approved for Medicaid or a Medicare Savings Program and when that information is formally conveyed to the Part D plan by CMS. As a practical matter, this often results in beneficiaries being charged co-pays, premiums and/or deductibles that they can't afford and shouldn't have to pay.

To protect LIS beneficiaries, CMS has a "Best Available Evidence" policy which buy propecia online usa requires plans to accept alternative forms of proof of someone's LIS status and adjust the person's cost-sharing obligation accordingly. LIS beneficiaries who are being charged improperly should be sure to contact their plan and provide proof of their LIS status. If the plan still won't recognize their LIS status, the person or their advocate should file a complaint with the CMS regional office.

The federal regulations governing the Low Income Subsidy program can be found at 42 CFR buy propecia online usa Subpart P (sections 423.771 through 423.800). Also, CMS provides detailed guidance on the LIS provisions in chapter 13 of its Medicare Prescription Drug Benefit Manual. This article was authored by the Empire Justice Center.Medicare Savings Programs (MSPs) pay for the monthly Medicare Part B premium for low-income Medicare beneficiaries and qualify enrollees for the "Extra Help" subsidy for Part D prescription drugs.

There are three separate MSP programs, the Qualified Medicare Beneficiary (QMB) Program, the Specified Low Income buy propecia online usa Medicare Beneficiary (SLMB) Program and the Qualified Individual (QI) Program, each of which is discussed below. Those in QMB receive additional subsidies for Medicare costs. See 2019 Fact Sheet on MSP in NYS by Medicare Rights Center ENGLISH SPANISH State law.

L. § 367-a(3)(a), (b), and (d). 2020 Medicare 101 Basics for New York State - 1.5 hour webinar by Eric Hausman, sponsored by NYS Office of the Aging TOPICS COVERED IN THIS ARTICLE 1.

No Asset Limit 1A. Summary Chart of MSP Programs 2. Income Limits &.

Rules and Household Size 3. The Three MSP Programs - What are they and how are they Different?. 4.

FOUR Special Benefits of MSP Programs. Back Door to Extra Help with Part D MSPs Automatically Waive Late Enrollment Penalties for Part B - and allow enrollment in Part B year-round outside of the short Annual Enrollment Period No Medicaid Lien on Estate to Recover Payment of Expenses Paid by MSP Food Stamps/SNAP not reduced by Decreased Medical Expenses when Enroll in MSP - at least temporarily 5. Enrolling in an MSP - Automatic Enrollment &.

Applications for People who Have Medicare What is Application Process?. 6. Enrolling in an MSP for People age 65+ who Do Not Qualify for Free Medicare Part A - the "Part A Buy-In Program" 7.

What Happens After MSP Approved - How Part B Premium is Paid 8 Special Rules for QMBs - How Medicare Cost-Sharing Works 1. NO ASSET LIMIT!. Since April 1, 2008, none of the three MSP programs have resource limits in New York -- which means many Medicare beneficiaries who might not qualify for Medicaid because of excess resources can qualify for an MSP.

1.A. SUMMARY CHART OF MSP BENEFITS QMB SLIMB QI-1 Eligibility ASSET LIMIT NO LIMIT IN NEW YORK STATE INCOME LIMIT (2020) Single Couple Single Couple Single Couple $1,064 $1,437 $1,276 $1,724 $1,436 $1,940 Federal Poverty Level 100% FPL 100 – 120% FPL 120 – 135% FPL Benefits Pays Monthly Part B premium?. YES, and also Part A premium if did not have enough work quarters and meets citizenship requirement.

See “Part A Buy-In” YES YES Pays Part A &. B deductibles &. Co-insurance YES - with limitations NO NO Retroactive to Filing of Application?.

Yes - Benefits begin the month after the month of the MSP application. 18 NYCRR §360-7.8(b)(5) Yes – Retroactive to 3rd month before month of application, if eligible in prior months Yes – may be retroactive to 3rd month before month of applica-tion, but only within the current calendar year. (No retro for January application).

See GIS 07 MA 027. Can Enroll in MSP and Medicaid at Same Time?. YES YES NO!.

Must choose between QI-1 and Medicaid. Cannot have both, not even Medicaid with a spend-down. 2.

INCOME LIMITS and RULES Each of the three MSP programs has different income eligibility requirements and provides different benefits. The income limits are tied to the Federal Poverty Level (FPL). 2019 FPL levels were released by NYS DOH in GIS 20 MA/02 - 2020 Federal Poverty Levels -- Attachment II and have been posted by Medicaid.gov and the National Council on Aging and are in the chart below.

NOTE. There is usually a lag in time of several weeks, or even months, from January 1st of each year until the new FPLs are release, and then before the new MSP income limits are officially implemented. During this lag period, local Medicaid offices should continue to use the previous year's FPLs AND count the person's Social Security benefit amount from the previous year - do NOT factor in the Social Security COLA (cost of living adjustment).

Once the updated guidelines are released, districts will use the new FPLs and go ahead and factor in any COLA. See 2019 Fact Sheet on MSP in NYS by Medicare Rights Center ENGLISH SPANISH Income is determined by the same methodology as is used for determining in eligibility for SSI The rules for counting income for SSI-related (Aged 65+, Blind, or Disabled) Medicaid recipients, borrowed from the SSI program, apply to the MSP program, except for the new rules about counting household size for married couples. N.Y.

367-a(3)(c)(2), NYS DOH 2000-ADM-7, 89-ADM-7 p.7. Gross income is counted, although there are certain types of income that are disregarded. The most common income disregards, also known as deductions, include.

(a) The first $20 of your &. Your spouse's monthly income, earned or unearned ($20 per couple max). (b) SSI EARNED INCOME DISREGARDS.

* The first $65 of monthly wages of you and your spouse, * One-half of the remaining monthly wages (after the $65 is deducted). * Other work incentives including PASS plans, impairment related work expenses (IRWEs), blind work expenses, etc. For information on these deductions, see The Medicaid Buy-In for Working People with Disabilities (MBI-WPD) and other guides in this article -- though written for the MBI-WPD, the work incentives apply to all Medicaid programs, including MSP, for people age 65+, disabled or blind.

(c) monthly cost of any health insurance premiums but NOT the Part B premium, since Medicaid will now pay this premium (may deduct Medigap supplemental policies, vision, dental, or long term care insurance premiums, and the Part D premium but only to the extent the premium exceeds the Extra Help benchmark amount) (d) Food stamps not counted. You can get a more comprehensive listing of the SSI-related income disregards on the Medicaid income disregards chart. As for all benefit programs based on financial need, it is usually advantageous to be considered a larger household, because the income limit is higher.

The above chart shows that Households of TWO have a higher income limit than households of ONE. The MSP programs use the same rules as Medicaid does for the Disabled, Aged and Blind (DAB) which are borrowed from the SSI program for Medicaid recipients in the “SSI-related category.” Under these rules, a household can be only ONE or TWO. 18 NYCRR 360-4.2.

See DAB Household Size Chart. Married persons can sometimes be ONE or TWO depending on arcane rules, which can force a Medicare beneficiary to be limited to the income limit for ONE person even though his spouse who is under 65 and not disabled has no income, and is supported by the client applying for an MSP. EXAMPLE.

Bob's Social Security is $1300/month. He is age 67 and has Medicare. His wife, Nancy, is age 62 and is not disabled and does not work.

Under the old rule, Bob was not eligible for an MSP because his income was above the Income limit for One, even though it was well under the Couple limit. In 2010, NYS DOH modified its rules so that all married individuals will be considered a household size of TWO. DOH GIS 10 MA 10 Medicare Savings Program Household Size, June 4, 2010.

This rule for household size is an exception to the rule applying SSI budgeting rules to the MSP program. Under these rules, Bob is now eligible for an MSP. When is One Better than Two?.

Of course, there may be couples where the non-applying spouse's income is too high, and disqualifies the applying spouse from an MSP. In such cases, "spousal refusal" may be used SSL 366.3(a). (Link is to NYC HRA form, can be adapted for other counties).

3. The Three Medicare Savings Programs - what are they and how are they different?. 1.

Qualified Medicare Beneficiary (QMB). The QMB program provides the most comprehensive benefits. Available to those with incomes at or below 100% of the Federal Poverty Level (FPL), the QMB program covers virtually all Medicare cost-sharing obligations.

Part B premiums, Part A premiums, if there are any, and any and all deductibles and co-insurance. QMB coverage is not retroactive. The program’s benefits will begin the month after the month in which your client is found eligible.

** See special rules about cost-sharing for QMBs below - updated with new CMS directive issued January 2012 ** See NYC HRA QMB Recertification form ** Even if you do not have Part A automatically, because you did not have enough wages, you may be able to enroll in the Part A Buy-In Program, in which people eligible for QMB who do not otherwise have Medicare Part A may enroll, with Medicaid paying the Part A premium (Materials by the Medicare Rights Center). 2. Specifiedl Low-Income Medicare Beneficiary (SLMB).

For those with incomes between 100% and 120% FPL, the SLMB program will cover Part B premiums only. SLMB is retroactive, however, providing coverage for three months prior to the month of application, as long as your client was eligible during those months. 3.

Qualified Individual (QI-1). For those with incomes between 120% and 135% FPL, and not receiving Medicaid, the QI-1 program will cover Medicare Part B premiums only. QI-1 is also retroactive, providing coverage for three months prior to the month of application, as long as your client was eligible during those months.

However, QI-1 retroactive coverage can only be provided within the current calendar year. (GIS 07 MA 027) So if you apply in January, you get no retroactive coverage. Q-I-1 recipients would be eligible for Medicaid with a spend-down, but if they want the Part B premium paid, they must choose between enrolling in QI-1 or Medicaid.

They cannot be in both. It is their choice. DOH MRG p.

19. In contrast, one may receive Medicaid and either QMB or SLIMB. 4.

Four Special Benefits of MSPs (in addition to NO ASSET TEST). Benefit 1. Back Door to Medicare Part D "Extra Help" or Low Income Subsidy -- All MSP recipients are automatically enrolled in Extra Help, the subsidy that makes Part D affordable.

They have no Part D deductible or doughnut hole, the premium is subsidized, and they pay very low copayments. Once they are enrolled in Extra Help by virtue of enrollment in an MSP, they retain Extra Help for the entire calendar year, even if they lose MSP eligibility during that year. The "Full" Extra Help subsidy has the same income limit as QI-1 - 135% FPL.

However, many people may be eligible for QI-1 but not Extra Help because QI-1 and the other MSPs have no asset limit. People applying to the Social Security Administration for Extra Help might be rejected for this reason. Recent (2009-10) changes to federal law called "MIPPA" requires the Social Security Administration (SSA) to share eligibility data with NYSDOH on all persons who apply for Extra Help/ the Low Income Subsidy.

Data sent to NYSDOH from SSA will enable NYSDOH to open MSP cases on many clients. The effective date of the MSP application must be the same date as the Extra Help application. Signatures will not be required from clients.

In cases where the SSA data is incomplete, NYSDOH will forward what is collected to the local district for completion of an MSP application. The State implementing procedures are in DOH 2010 ADM-03. Also see CMS "Dear State Medicaid Director" letter dated Feb.

18, 2010 Benefit 2. MSPs Automatically Waive Late Enrollment Penalties for Part B Generally one must enroll in Part B within the strict enrollment periods after turning age 65 or after 24 months of Social Security Disability. An exception is if you or your spouse are still working and insured under an employer sponsored group health plan, or if you have End Stage Renal Disease, and other factors, see this from Medicare Rights Center.

If you fail to enroll within those short periods, you might have to pay higher Part B premiums for life as a Late Enrollment Penalty (LEP). Also, you may only enroll in Part B during the Annual Enrollment Period from January 1 - March 31st each year, with Part B not effective until the following July. Enrollment in an MSP automatically eliminates such penalties...

For life.. Even if one later ceases to be eligible for the MSP. AND enrolling in an MSP will automatically result in becoming enrolled in Part B if you didn't already have it and only had Part A.

See Medicare Rights Center flyer. Benefit 3. No Medicaid Lien on Estate to Recover MSP Benefits Paid Generally speaking, states may place liens on the Estates of deceased Medicaid recipients to recover the cost of Medicaid services that were provided after the recipient reached the age of 55.

Since 2002, states have not been allowed to recover the cost of Medicare premiums paid under MSPs. In 2010, Congress expanded protection for MSP benefits. Beginning on January 1, 2010, states may not place liens on the Estates of Medicaid recipients who died after January 1, 2010 to recover costs for co-insurance paid under the QMB MSP program for services rendered after January 1, 2010.

The federal government made this change in order to eliminate barriers to enrollment in MSPs. See NYS DOH GIS 10-MA-008 - Medicare Savings Program Changes in Estate Recovery The GIS clarifies that a client who receives both QMB and full Medicaid is exempt from estate recovery for these Medicare cost-sharing expenses. Benefit 4.

SNAP (Food Stamp) benefits not reduced despite increased income from MSP - at least temporarily Many people receive both SNAP (Food Stamp) benefits and MSP. Income for purposes of SNAP/Food Stamps is reduced by a deduction for medical expenses, which includes payment of the Part B premium. Since approval for an MSP means that the client no longer pays for the Part B premium, his/her SNAP/Food Stamps income goes up, so their SNAP/Food Stamps go down.

Here are some protections. Do these individuals have to report to their SNAP worker that their out of pocket medical costs have decreased?. And will the household see a reduction in their SNAP benefits, since the decrease in medical expenses will increase their countable income?.

The good news is that MSP households do NOT have to report the decrease in their medical expenses to the SNAP/Food Stamp office until their next SNAP/Food Stamp recertification. Even if they do report the change, or the local district finds out because the same worker is handling both the MSP and SNAP case, there should be no reduction in the household’s benefit until the next recertification. New York’s SNAP policy per administrative directive 02 ADM-07 is to “freeze” the deduction for medical expenses between certification periods.

Increases in medical expenses can be budgeted at the household’s request, but NYS never decreases a household’s medical expense deduction until the next recertification. Most elderly and disabled households have 24-month SNAP certification periods. Eventually, though, the decrease in medical expenses will need to be reported when the household recertifies for SNAP, and the household should expect to see a decrease in their monthly SNAP benefit.

It is really important to stress that the loss in SNAP benefits is NOT dollar for dollar. A $100 decrease in out of pocket medical expenses would translate roughly into a $30 drop in SNAP benefits. See more info on SNAP/Food Stamp benefits by the Empire Justice Center, and on the State OTDA website.

Some clients will be automatically enrolled in an MSP by the New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) shortly after attaining eligibility for Medicare. Others need to apply. The 2010 "MIPPA" law introduced some improvements to increase MSP enrollment.

See 3rd bullet below. Also, some people who had Medicaid through the Affordable Care Act before they became eligible for Medicare have special procedures to have their Part B premium paid before they enroll in an MSP. See below.

WHO IS AUTOMATICALLY ENROLLED IN AN MSP. Clients receiving even $1.00 of Supplemental Security Income should be automatically enrolled into a Medicare Savings Program (most often QMB) under New York State’s Medicare Savings Program Buy-in Agreement with the federal government once they become eligible for Medicare. They should receive Medicare Parts A and B.

Clients who are already eligible for Medicare when they apply for Medicaid should be automatically assessed for MSP eligibility when they apply for Medicaid. (NYS DOH 2000-ADM-7 and GIS 05 MA 033). Clients who apply to the Social Security Administration for Extra Help, but are rejected, should be contacted &.

Enrolled into an MSP by the Medicaid program directly under new MIPPA procedures that require data sharing. Strategy TIP. Since the Extra Help filing date will be assigned to the MSP application, it may help the client to apply online for Extra Help with the SSA, even knowing that this application will be rejected because of excess assets or other reason.

SSA processes these requests quickly, and it will be routed to the State for MSP processing. Since MSP applications take a while, at least the filing date will be retroactive. Note.

The above strategy does not work as well for QMB, because the effective date of QMB is the month after the month of application. As a result, the retroactive effective date of Extra Help will be the month after the failed Extra Help application for those with QMB rather than SLMB/QI-1. Applying for MSP Directly with Local Medicaid Program.

Those who do not have Medicaid already must apply for an MSP through their local social services district. (See more in Section D. Below re those who already have Medicaid through the Affordable Care Act before they became eligible for Medicare.

If you are applying for MSP only (not also Medicaid), you can use the simplified MSP application form (theDOH-4328(Rev. 8/2017-- English) (2017 Spanish version not yet available). Either application form can be mailed in -- there is no interview requirement anymore for MSP or Medicaid.

See 10 ADM-04. Applicants will need to submit proof of income, a copy of their Medicare card (front &. Back), and proof of residency/address.

See the application form for other instructions. One who is only eligible for QI-1 because of higher income may ONLY apply for an MSP, not for Medicaid too. One may not receive Medicaid and QI-1 at the same time.

If someone only eligible for QI-1 wants Medicaid, s/he may enroll in and deposit excess income into a pooled Supplemental Needs Trust, to bring her countable income down to the Medicaid level, which also qualifies him or her for SLIMB or QMB instead of QI-1. Advocates in NYC can sign up for a half-day "Deputization Training" conducted by the Medicare Rights Center, at which you'll be trained and authorized to complete an MSP application and to submit it via the Medicare Rights Center, which submits it to HRA without the client having to apply in person. Enrolling in an MSP if you already have Medicaid, but just become eligible for Medicare Those who, prior to becoming enrolled in Medicare, had Medicaid through Affordable Care Act are eligible to have their Part B premiums paid by Medicaid (or the cost reimbursed) during the time it takes for them to transition to a Medicare Savings Program.

In 2018, DOH clarified that reimbursement of the Part B premium will be made regardless of whether the individual is still in a Medicaid managed care (MMC) plan. GIS 18 MA/001 Medicaid Managed Care Transition for Enrollees Gaining Medicare ( PDF) provides, "Due to efforts to transition individuals who gain Medicare eligibility and who require LTSS, individuals may not be disenrolled from MMC upon receipt of Medicare. To facilitate the transition and not disadvantage the recipient, the Medicaid program is approving reimbursement of Part B premiums for enrollees in MMC." The procedure for getting the Part B premium paid is different for those whose Medicaid was administered by the NYS of Health Exchange (Marketplace), as opposed to their local social services district.

The procedure is also different for those who obtain Medicare because they turn 65, as opposed to obtaining Medicare based on disability. Either way, Medicaid recipients who transition onto Medicare should be automatically evaluated for MSP eligibility at their next Medicaid recertification. NYS DOH 2000-ADM-7 Individuals can also affirmatively ask to be enrolled in MSP in between recertification periods.

IF CLIENT HAD MEDICAID ON THE MARKETPLACE (NYS of Health Exchange) before obtaining Medicare. IF they obtain Medicare because they turn age 65, they will receive a letter from their local district asking them to "renew" Medicaid through their local district. See 2014 LCM-02.

Now, their Medicaid income limit will be lower than the MAGI limits ($842/ mo reduced from $1387/month) and they now will have an asset test. For this reason, some individuals may lose full Medicaid eligibility when they begin receiving Medicare. People over age 65 who obtain Medicare do NOT keep "Marketplace Medicaid" for 12 months (continuous eligibility) See GIS 15 MA/022 - Continuous Coverage for MAGI Individuals.

Since MSP has NO ASSET limit. Some individuals may be enrolled in the MSP even if they lose Medicaid, or if they now have a Medicaid spend-down. If a Medicare/Medicaid recipient reports income that exceeds the Medicaid level, districts must evaluate the person’s eligibility for MSP.

08 OHIP/ADM-4 ​If you became eligible for Medicare based on disability and you are UNDER AGE 65, you are entitled to keep MAGI Medicaid for 12 months from the month it was last authorized, even if you now have income normally above the MAGI limit, and even though you now have Medicare. This is called Continuous Eligibility. EXAMPLE.

Sam, age 60, was last authorized for Medicaid on the Marketplace in June 2016. He became enrolled in Medicare based on disability in August 2016, and started receiving Social Security in the same month (he won a hearing approving Social Security disability benefits retroactively, after first being denied disability). Even though his Social Security is too high, he can keep Medicaid for 12 months beginning June 2016.

Sam has to pay for his Part B premium - it is deducted from his Social Security check. He may call the Marketplace and request a refund. This will continue until the end of his 12 months of continues MAGI Medicaid eligibility.

He will be reimbursed regardless of whether he is in a Medicaid managed care plan. See GIS 18 MA/001 Medicaid Managed Care Transition for Enrollees Gaining Medicare (PDF) When that ends, he will renew Medicaid and apply for MSP with his local district. Individuals who are eligible for Medicaid with a spenddown can opt whether or not to receive MSP.

(Medicaid Reference Guide (MRG) p. 19). Obtaining MSP may increase their spenddown.

MIPPA - Outreach by Social Security Administration -- Under MIPPA, the SSA sends a form letter to people who may be eligible for a Medicare Savings Program or Extra Help (Low Income Subsidy - LIS) that they may apply. The letters are. · Beneficiary has Extra Help (LIS), but not MSP · Beneficiary has no Extra Help (LIS) or MSP 6.

Enrolling in MSP for People Age 65+ who do Not have Free Medicare Part A - the "Part A Buy-In Program" Seniors WITHOUT MEDICARE PART A or B -- They may be able to enroll in the Part A Buy-In program, in which people eligible for QMB who are age 65+ who do not otherwise have Medicare Part A may enroll in Part A, with Medicaid paying the Part A premium. See Step-by-Step Guide by the Medicare Rights Center). This guide explains the various steps in "conditionally enrolling" in Part A at the SSA office, which must be done before applying for QMB at the Medicaid office, which will then pay the Part A premium.

See also GIS 04 MA/013. In June, 2018, the SSA revised the POMS manual procedures for the Part A Buy-In to to address inconsistencies and confusion in SSA field offices and help smooth the path for QMB enrollment. The procedures are in the POMS Section HI 00801.140 "Premium-Free Part A Enrollments for Qualified Medicare BenefiIaries." It includes important clarifications, such as.

SSA Field Offices should explain the QMB program and conditional enrollment process if an individual lacks premium-free Part A and appears to meet QMB requirements. SSA field offices can add notes to the “Remarks” section of the application and provide a screen shot to the individual so the individual can provide proof of conditional Part A enrollment when applying for QMB through the state Medicaid program. Beneficiaries are allowed to complete the conditional application even if they owe Medicare premiums.

In Part A Buy-in states like NYS, SSA should process conditional applications on a rolling basis (without regard to enrollment periods), even if the application coincides with the General Enrollment Period. (The General Enrollment Period is from Jan 1 to March 31st every year, in which anyone eligible may enroll in Medicare Part A or Part B to be effective on July 1st). 7.

What happens after the MSP approval - How is Part B premium paid For all three MSP programs, the Medicaid program is now responsible for paying the Part B premiums, even though the MSP enrollee is not necessarily a recipient of Medicaid. The local Medicaid office (DSS/HRA) transmits the MSP approval to the NYS Department of Health – that information gets shared w/ SSA and CMS SSA stops deducting the Part B premiums out of the beneficiary’s Social Security check. SSA also refunds any amounts owed to the recipient.

!. ) CMS “deems” the MSP recipient eligible for Part D Extra Help/ Low Income Subsidy (LIS). ​Can the MSP be retroactive like Medicaid, back to 3 months before the application?.

​The answer is different for the 3 MSP programs. QMB -No Retroactive Eligibility – Benefits begin the month after the month of the MSP application. 18 NYCRR § 360-7.8(b)(5) SLIMB - YES - Retroactive Eligibility up to 3 months before the application, if was eligible This means applicant may be reimbursed for the 3 months of Part B benefits prior to the month of application.

QI-1 - YES up to 3 months but only in the same calendar year. No retroactive eligibility to the previous year. 7.

Extra Help beneficiaries do not have to worry about http://theblackcatphotography.com/?foogallery=music hitting the “donut hole” – the LIS propecia pill price subsidy continues to cover them through the donut hole and into catastrophic coverage. Full Extra Help. LIS beneficiaries with incomes up to 135% FPL are generally eligible for "full" Extra Help -- meaning they pay no Part D deductible, no charge for monthly premiums up to the benchmark amount, and fixed, relatively low co-pays (between $1.30 and $8.95 for 2020 depending on the person's income level and the tier category of the drug. Medicaid beneficiaries in nursing homes, waiver programs, or managed long term propecia pill price care have $0 co-pays).

Full Extra Help beneficiaries who hit the catastrophic coverage limit have $0 co-pays. See current co-pay levels here. Partial Extra Help propecia pill price. Beneficiaries between 135%-150% FPL receive "partial" Extra Help, which limits the Part D deductible to $89 (2020 figure - click here for updated chart).

Sets sliding scale fees for monthly premiums. And limits co-pays to 15%, until the beneficiary reaches the catastrophic coverage limit, at which point co-pays are limited to a $8.95 maximum (2020 or see current amount propecia pill price here) or 5% of the drug cost, whichever is greater. 2) Facilitated enrollment into a Part D plan Extra Help recipients who aren’t already enrolled in a Part D plan and don’t want to choose one on their own will be automatically enrolled into a benchmark plan by CMS. This facilitated enrollment ensures that Extra Help recipients have Part D coverage.

However, the downside to facilitated enrollment is that the plan may not be the best “fit” for the beneficiary, if it doesn’t cover all his/her drugs, assesses a higher tier level for covered drugs than other comparable plans, and/or requires the beneficiary to go through administrative hoops like prior authorization, quantity propecia pill price limits and/or step therapy. Fortunately, Extra Help recipients can always enroll in a new plan … see #3 below. 3) Continuous special enrollment period Extra Help recipients have a continuous special enrollment period, meaning that they can switch plans at any time. They are not “locked into” the propecia pill price annual open enrollment period (October 15-December 7).

NOTE. This changed in 2019. Starting in 2019, those with Extra Help will no propecia pill price longer have a continuous enrollment period. Instead, Extra Help recipients will be eligible to enroll no more than once per quarter for each of the first three quarters of the year.

4) No late enrollment penalty Non LIS beneficiaries generally face a premium penalty (higher monthly premium) if they delayed their enrollment into Part D, meaning that they didn’t enroll when they were initially eligible and didn’t have “creditable coverage.” Extra Help recipients do not have to worry about this problem – the late enrollment penalty provision does not apply to LIS beneficiaries. 1) For “deemed” beneficiaries (Medicaid/Medicare Savings Program propecia pill price recipients). Extra Help status lasts at least until the end of the current calendar year, even if the individual loses their Medicaid or Medicare Savings Program coverage during that year. Individuals who receive Medicaid or a Medicare Savings Program any month between July and December keep their LIS status for the remainder of that calendar year and the following year.

Getting Medicaid coverage for even just a short period of time (ie, meeting a spenddown for just one month) can help ensure that the individual obtains Extra Help coverage for at least 6 months, and possibly as propecia pill price long as 18 months. TIP. People with a high spend-down who want to receive Medicaid for just one month in order to get Extra Help for 6-18 months can use past medical bills to meet their spend-down for that one month. There are different rules for using past paid medical bills verses past propecia pill price unpaid medical bills.

For information see Spend down training materials. Individuals who are losing their deemed status at the end of a calendar year because they are no longer receiving Medicaid or the Medicare Savings Program should be notified in advance by SSA, and given an opportunity to file an Extra Help application through SSA. 2) For “non-deemed” beneficiaries (those who filed their LIS applications through SSA) Non-deemed beneficiaries retain their LIS status until/unless SSA propecia pill price does a redetermination and finds the individual ineligible for Extra Help. There are no reporting requirements per se in the Extra Help program, but beneficiaries must respond to SSA’s redetermination request.

What to do if the Part D plan doesn't know that someone has Extra Help Sometimes there are lengthy delays between the date that someone is approved for Medicaid or a Medicare Savings Program and when that information is formally conveyed to the Part D plan by CMS. As a practical matter, this often results in beneficiaries being charged co-pays, premiums and/or deductibles that they can't afford and shouldn't have to pay propecia pill price. To protect LIS beneficiaries, CMS has a "Best Available Evidence" policy which requires plans to accept alternative forms of proof of someone's LIS status and adjust the person's cost-sharing obligation accordingly. LIS beneficiaries who are being charged improperly should be sure to contact their plan and provide proof of their LIS status.

If the plan still won't recognize their LIS status, the propecia pill price person or their advocate should file a complaint with the CMS regional office. The federal regulations governing the Low Income Subsidy program can be found at 42 CFR Subpart P (sections 423.771 through 423.800). Also, CMS provides detailed guidance on the LIS provisions in chapter 13 of its Medicare Prescription Drug Benefit Manual. This article was authored by the Empire Justice Center.Medicare Savings Programs (MSPs) pay for the monthly Medicare Part B premium for low-income Medicare beneficiaries and qualify enrollees for the "Extra propecia pill price Help" subsidy for Part D prescription drugs.

There are three separate MSP programs, the Qualified Medicare Beneficiary (QMB) Program, the Specified Low Income Medicare Beneficiary (SLMB) Program and the Qualified Individual (QI) Program, each of which is discussed below. Those in QMB receive additional subsidies for Medicare costs. See 2019 Fact propecia pill price Sheet on MSP in NYS by Medicare Rights Center ENGLISH SPANISH State law. N.Y.

Soc. Serv. L. § 367-a(3)(a), (b), and (d).

2020 Medicare 101 Basics for New York State - 1.5 hour webinar by Eric Hausman, sponsored by NYS Office of the Aging TOPICS COVERED IN THIS ARTICLE 1. No Asset Limit 1A. Summary Chart of MSP Programs 2. Income Limits &.

Rules and Household Size 3. The Three MSP Programs - What are they and how are they Different?. 4. FOUR Special Benefits of MSP Programs.

Back Door to Extra Help with Part D MSPs Automatically Waive Late Enrollment Penalties for Part B - and allow enrollment in Part B year-round outside of the short Annual Enrollment Period No Medicaid Lien on Estate to Recover Payment of Expenses Paid by MSP Food Stamps/SNAP not reduced by Decreased Medical Expenses when Enroll in MSP - at least temporarily 5. Enrolling in an MSP - Automatic Enrollment &. Applications for People who Have Medicare What is Application Process?. 6.

Enrolling in an MSP for People age 65+ who Do Not Qualify for Free Medicare Part A - the "Part A Buy-In Program" 7. What Happens After MSP Approved - How Part B Premium is Paid 8 Special Rules for QMBs - How Medicare Cost-Sharing Works 1. NO ASSET LIMIT!. Since April 1, 2008, none of the three MSP programs have resource limits in New York -- which means many Medicare beneficiaries who might not qualify for Medicaid because of excess resources can qualify for an MSP.

1.A. SUMMARY CHART OF MSP BENEFITS QMB SLIMB QI-1 Eligibility ASSET LIMIT NO LIMIT IN NEW YORK STATE INCOME LIMIT (2020) Single Couple Single Couple Single Couple $1,064 $1,437 $1,276 $1,724 $1,436 $1,940 Federal Poverty Level 100% FPL 100 – 120% FPL 120 – 135% FPL Benefits Pays Monthly Part B premium?. YES, and also Part A premium if did not have enough work quarters and meets citizenship requirement. See “Part A Buy-In” YES YES Pays Part A &.

B deductibles &. Co-insurance YES - with limitations NO NO Retroactive to Filing of Application?. Yes - Benefits begin the month after the month of the MSP application. 18 NYCRR §360-7.8(b)(5) Yes – Retroactive to 3rd month before month of application, if eligible in prior months Yes – may be retroactive to 3rd month before month of applica-tion, but only within the current calendar year.

(No retro for January application). See GIS 07 MA 027. Can Enroll in MSP and Medicaid at Same Time?. YES YES NO!.

Must choose between QI-1 and Medicaid. Cannot have both, not even Medicaid with a spend-down. 2. INCOME LIMITS and RULES Each of the three MSP programs has different income eligibility requirements and provides different benefits.

The income limits are tied to the Federal Poverty Level (FPL). 2019 FPL levels were released by NYS DOH in GIS 20 MA/02 - 2020 Federal Poverty Levels -- Attachment II and have been posted by Medicaid.gov and the National Council on Aging and are in the chart below. NOTE. There is usually a lag in time of several weeks, or even months, from January 1st of each year until the new FPLs are release, and then before the new MSP income limits are officially implemented.

During this lag period, local Medicaid offices should continue to use the previous year's FPLs AND count the person's Social Security benefit amount from the previous year - do NOT factor in the Social Security COLA (cost of living adjustment). Once the updated guidelines are released, districts will use the new FPLs and go ahead and factor in any COLA. See 2019 Fact Sheet on MSP in NYS by Medicare Rights Center ENGLISH SPANISH Income is determined by the same methodology as is used for determining in eligibility for SSI The rules for counting income for SSI-related (Aged 65+, Blind, or Disabled) Medicaid recipients, borrowed from the SSI program, apply to the MSP program, except for the new rules about counting household size for married couples. N.Y.

Soc. Serv. L. 367-a(3)(c)(2), NYS DOH 2000-ADM-7, 89-ADM-7 p.7.

Gross income is counted, although there are certain types of income that are disregarded. The most common income disregards, also known as deductions, include. (a) The first $20 of your &. Your spouse's monthly income, earned or unearned ($20 per couple max).

(b) SSI EARNED INCOME DISREGARDS. * The first $65 of monthly wages of you and your spouse, * One-half of the remaining monthly wages (after the $65 is deducted). * Other work incentives including PASS plans, impairment related work expenses (IRWEs), blind work expenses, etc. For information on these deductions, see The Medicaid Buy-In for Working People with Disabilities (MBI-WPD) and other guides in this article -- though written for the MBI-WPD, the work incentives apply to all Medicaid programs, including MSP, for people age 65+, disabled or blind.

(c) monthly cost of any health insurance premiums but NOT the Part B premium, since Medicaid will now pay this premium (may deduct Medigap supplemental policies, vision, dental, or long term care insurance premiums, and the Part D premium but only to the extent the premium exceeds the Extra Help benchmark amount) (d) Food stamps not counted. You can get a more comprehensive listing of the SSI-related income disregards on the Medicaid income disregards chart. As for all benefit programs based on financial need, it is usually advantageous to be considered a larger household, because the income limit is higher. The above chart shows that Households of TWO have a higher income limit than households of ONE.

The MSP programs use the same rules as Medicaid does for the Disabled, Aged and Blind (DAB) which are borrowed from the SSI program for Medicaid recipients in the “SSI-related category.” Under these rules, a household can be only ONE or TWO. 18 NYCRR 360-4.2. See DAB Household Size Chart. Married persons can sometimes be ONE or TWO depending on arcane rules, which can force a Medicare beneficiary to be limited to the income limit for ONE person even though his spouse who is under 65 and not disabled has no income, and is supported by the client applying for an MSP.

EXAMPLE. Bob's Social Security is $1300/month. He is age 67 and has Medicare. His wife, Nancy, is age 62 and is not disabled and does not work.

Under the old rule, Bob was not eligible for an MSP because his income was above the Income limit for One, even though it was well under the Couple limit. In 2010, NYS DOH modified its rules so that all married individuals will be considered a household size of TWO. DOH GIS 10 MA 10 Medicare Savings Program Household Size, June 4, 2010. This rule for household size is an exception to the rule applying SSI budgeting rules to the MSP program.

Under these rules, Bob is now eligible for an MSP. When is One Better than Two?. Of course, there may be couples where the non-applying spouse's income is too high, and disqualifies the applying spouse from an MSP. In such cases, "spousal refusal" may be used SSL 366.3(a).

(Link is to NYC HRA form, can be adapted for other counties). 3. The Three Medicare Savings Programs - what are they and how are they different?. 1.

Qualified Medicare Beneficiary (QMB). The QMB program provides the most comprehensive benefits. Available to those with incomes at or below 100% of the Federal Poverty Level (FPL), the QMB program covers virtually all Medicare cost-sharing obligations. Part B premiums, Part A premiums, if there are any, and any and all deductibles and co-insurance.

QMB coverage is not retroactive. The program’s benefits will begin the month after the month in which your client is found eligible. ** See special rules about cost-sharing for QMBs below - updated with new CMS directive issued January 2012 ** See NYC HRA QMB Recertification form ** Even if you do not have Part A automatically, because you did not have enough wages, you may be able to enroll in the Part A Buy-In Program, in which people eligible for QMB who do not otherwise have Medicare Part A may enroll, with Medicaid paying the Part A premium (Materials by the Medicare Rights Center). 2.

Specifiedl Low-Income Medicare Beneficiary (SLMB). For those with incomes between 100% and 120% FPL, the SLMB program will cover Part B premiums only. SLMB is retroactive, however, providing coverage for three months prior to the month of application, as long as your client was eligible during those months. 3.

Qualified Individual (QI-1). For those with incomes between 120% and 135% FPL, and not receiving Medicaid, the QI-1 program will cover Medicare Part B premiums only. QI-1 is also retroactive, providing coverage for three months prior to the month of application, as long as your client was eligible during those months. However, QI-1 retroactive coverage can only be provided within the current calendar year.

(GIS 07 MA 027) So if you apply in January, you get no retroactive coverage. Q-I-1 recipients would be eligible for Medicaid with a spend-down, but if they want the Part B premium paid, they must choose between enrolling in QI-1 or Medicaid. They cannot be in both. It is their choice.

DOH MRG p. 19. In contrast, one may receive Medicaid and either QMB or SLIMB. 4.

Four Special Benefits of MSPs how can i buy propecia (in addition to NO ASSET TEST). Benefit 1. Back Door to Medicare Part D "Extra Help" or Low Income Subsidy -- All MSP recipients are automatically enrolled in Extra Help, the subsidy that makes Part D affordable. They have no Part D deductible or doughnut hole, the premium is subsidized, and they pay very low copayments.

Once they are enrolled in Extra Help by virtue of enrollment in an MSP, they retain Extra Help for the entire calendar year, even if they lose MSP eligibility during that year. The "Full" Extra Help subsidy has the same income limit as QI-1 - 135% FPL. However, many people may be eligible for QI-1 but not Extra Help because QI-1 and the other MSPs have no asset limit. People applying to the Social Security Administration for Extra Help might be rejected for this reason.

Recent (2009-10) changes to federal law called "MIPPA" requires the Social Security Administration (SSA) to share eligibility data with NYSDOH on all persons who apply for Extra Help/ the Low Income Subsidy. Data sent to NYSDOH from SSA will enable NYSDOH to open MSP cases on many clients. The effective date of the MSP application must be the same date as the Extra Help application. Signatures will not be required from clients.

In cases where the SSA data is incomplete, NYSDOH will forward what is collected to the local district for completion of an MSP application. The State implementing procedures are in DOH 2010 ADM-03. Also see CMS "Dear State Medicaid Director" letter dated Feb. 18, 2010 Benefit 2.

MSPs Automatically Waive Late Enrollment Penalties for Part B Generally one must enroll in Part B within the strict enrollment periods after turning age 65 or after 24 months of Social Security Disability. An exception is if you or your spouse are still working and insured under an employer sponsored group health plan, or if you have End Stage Renal Disease, and other factors, see this from Medicare Rights Center. If you fail to enroll within those short periods, you might have to pay higher Part B premiums for life as a Late Enrollment Penalty (LEP). Also, you may only enroll in Part B during the Annual Enrollment Period from January 1 - March 31st each year, with Part B not effective until the following July.

Enrollment in an MSP automatically eliminates such penalties... For life.. Even if one later ceases to be eligible for the MSP. AND enrolling in an MSP will automatically result in becoming enrolled in Part B if you didn't already have it and only had Part A.

See Medicare Rights Center flyer. Benefit 3. No Medicaid Lien on Estate to Recover MSP Benefits Paid Generally speaking, states may place liens on the Estates of deceased Medicaid recipients to recover the cost of Medicaid services that were provided after the recipient reached the age of 55. Since 2002, states have not been allowed to recover the cost of Medicare premiums paid under MSPs.

In 2010, Congress expanded protection for MSP benefits. Beginning on January 1, 2010, states may not place liens on the Estates of Medicaid recipients who died after January 1, 2010 to recover costs for co-insurance paid under the QMB MSP program for services rendered after January 1, 2010. The federal government made this change in order to eliminate barriers to enrollment in MSPs. See NYS DOH GIS 10-MA-008 - Medicare Savings Program Changes in Estate Recovery The GIS clarifies that a client who receives both QMB and full Medicaid is exempt from estate recovery for these Medicare cost-sharing expenses.

Benefit 4. SNAP (Food Stamp) benefits not reduced despite increased income from MSP - at least temporarily Many people receive both SNAP (Food Stamp) benefits and MSP. Income for purposes of SNAP/Food Stamps is reduced by a deduction for medical expenses, which includes payment of the Part B premium. Since approval for an MSP means that the client no longer pays for the Part B premium, his/her SNAP/Food Stamps income goes up, so their SNAP/Food Stamps go down.

Here are some protections. Do these individuals have to report to their SNAP worker that their out of pocket medical costs have decreased?. And will the household see a reduction in their SNAP benefits, since the decrease in medical expenses will increase their countable income?. The good news is that MSP households do NOT have to report the decrease in their medical expenses to the SNAP/Food Stamp office until their next SNAP/Food Stamp recertification.

Even if they do report the change, or the local district finds out because the same worker is handling both the MSP and SNAP case, there should be no reduction in the household’s benefit until the next recertification. New York’s SNAP policy per administrative directive 02 ADM-07 is to “freeze” the deduction for medical expenses between certification periods. Increases in medical expenses can be budgeted at the household’s request, but NYS never decreases a household’s medical expense deduction until the next recertification. Most elderly and disabled households have 24-month SNAP certification periods.

Eventually, though, the decrease in medical expenses will need to be reported when the household recertifies for SNAP, and the household should expect to see a decrease in their monthly SNAP benefit. It is really important to stress that the loss in SNAP benefits is NOT dollar for dollar. A $100 decrease in out of pocket medical expenses would translate roughly into a $30 drop in SNAP benefits. See more info on SNAP/Food Stamp benefits by the Empire Justice Center, and on the State OTDA website.

Some clients will be automatically enrolled in an MSP by the New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) shortly after attaining eligibility for Medicare. Others need to apply. The 2010 "MIPPA" law introduced some improvements to increase MSP enrollment. See 3rd bullet below.

Also, some people who had Medicaid through the Affordable Care Act before they became eligible for Medicare have special procedures to have their Part B premium paid before they enroll in an MSP. See below. WHO IS AUTOMATICALLY ENROLLED IN AN MSP. Clients receiving even $1.00 of Supplemental Security Income should be automatically enrolled into a Medicare Savings Program (most often QMB) under New York State’s Medicare Savings Program Buy-in Agreement with the federal government once they become eligible for Medicare.

They should receive Medicare Parts A and B. Clients who are already eligible for Medicare when they apply for Medicaid should be automatically assessed for MSP eligibility when they apply for Medicaid. (NYS DOH 2000-ADM-7 and GIS 05 MA 033). Clients who apply to the Social Security Administration for Extra Help, but are rejected, should be contacted &.

Enrolled into an MSP by the Medicaid program directly under new MIPPA procedures that require data sharing. Strategy TIP. Since the Extra Help filing date will be assigned to the MSP application, it may help the client to apply online for Extra Help with the SSA, even knowing that this application will be rejected because of excess assets or other reason. SSA processes these requests quickly, and it will be routed to the State for MSP processing.

Since MSP applications take a while, at least the filing date will be retroactive. Note. The above strategy does not work as well for QMB, because the effective date of QMB is the month after the month of application. As a result, the retroactive effective date of Extra Help will be the month after the failed Extra Help application for those with QMB rather than SLMB/QI-1.

Applying for MSP Directly with Local Medicaid Program. Those who do not have Medicaid already must apply for an MSP through their local social services district. (See more in Section D. Below re those who already have Medicaid through the Affordable Care Act before they became eligible for Medicare.

If you are applying for MSP only (not also Medicaid), you can use the simplified MSP application form (theDOH-4328(Rev. 8/2017-- English) (2017 Spanish version not yet available). Either application form can be mailed in -- there is no interview requirement anymore for MSP or Medicaid. See 10 ADM-04.

Applicants will need to submit proof of income, a copy of their Medicare card (front &. Back), and proof of residency/address. See the application form for other instructions. One who is only eligible for QI-1 because of higher income may ONLY apply for an MSP, not for Medicaid too.

One may not receive Medicaid and QI-1 at the same time. If someone only eligible for QI-1 wants Medicaid, s/he may enroll in and deposit excess income into a pooled Supplemental Needs Trust, to bring her countable income down to the Medicaid level, which also qualifies him or her for SLIMB or QMB instead of QI-1. Advocates in NYC can sign up for a half-day "Deputization Training" conducted by the Medicare Rights Center, at which you'll be trained and authorized to complete an MSP application and to submit it via the Medicare Rights Center, which submits it to HRA without the client having to apply in person. Enrolling in an MSP if you already have Medicaid, but just become eligible for Medicare Those who, prior to becoming enrolled in Medicare, had Medicaid through Affordable Care Act are eligible to have their Part B premiums paid by Medicaid (or the cost reimbursed) during the time it takes for them to transition to a Medicare Savings Program.

In 2018, DOH clarified that reimbursement of the Part B premium will be made regardless of whether the individual is still in a Medicaid managed care (MMC) plan. GIS 18 MA/001 Medicaid Managed Care Transition for Enrollees Gaining Medicare ( PDF) provides, "Due to efforts to transition individuals who gain Medicare eligibility and who require LTSS, individuals may not be disenrolled from MMC upon receipt of Medicare. To facilitate the transition and not disadvantage the recipient, the Medicaid program is approving reimbursement of Part B premiums for enrollees in MMC." The procedure for getting the Part B premium paid is different for those whose Medicaid was administered by the NYS of Health Exchange (Marketplace), as opposed to their local social services district. The procedure is also different for those who obtain Medicare because they turn 65, as opposed to obtaining Medicare based on disability.

Either way, Medicaid recipients who transition onto Medicare should be automatically evaluated for MSP eligibility at their next Medicaid recertification. NYS DOH 2000-ADM-7 Individuals can also affirmatively ask to be enrolled in MSP in between recertification periods. IF CLIENT HAD MEDICAID ON THE MARKETPLACE (NYS of Health Exchange) before obtaining Medicare. IF they obtain Medicare because they turn age 65, they will receive a letter from their local district asking them to "renew" Medicaid through their local district.

See 2014 LCM-02. Now, their Medicaid income limit will be lower than the MAGI limits ($842/ mo reduced from $1387/month) and they now will have an asset test. For this reason, some individuals may lose full Medicaid eligibility when they begin receiving Medicare. People over age 65 who obtain Medicare do NOT keep "Marketplace Medicaid" for 12 months (continuous eligibility) See GIS 15 MA/022 - Continuous Coverage for MAGI Individuals.

Since MSP has NO ASSET limit. Some individuals may be enrolled in the MSP even if they lose Medicaid, or if they now have a Medicaid spend-down. If a Medicare/Medicaid recipient reports income that exceeds the Medicaid level, districts must evaluate the person’s eligibility for MSP. 08 OHIP/ADM-4 ​If you became eligible for Medicare based on disability and you are UNDER AGE 65, you are entitled to keep MAGI Medicaid for 12 months from the month it was last authorized, even if you now have income normally above the MAGI limit, and even though you now have Medicare.

This is called Continuous Eligibility. EXAMPLE. Sam, age 60, was last authorized for Medicaid on the Marketplace in June 2016. He became enrolled in Medicare based on disability in August 2016, and started receiving Social Security in the same month (he won a hearing approving Social Security disability benefits retroactively, after first being denied disability).

Even though his Social Security is too high, he can keep Medicaid for 12 months beginning June 2016. Sam has to pay for his Part B premium - it is deducted from his Social Security check. He may call the Marketplace and request a refund. This will continue until the end of his 12 months of continues MAGI Medicaid eligibility.

He will be reimbursed regardless of whether he is in a Medicaid managed care plan. See GIS 18 MA/001 Medicaid Managed Care Transition for Enrollees Gaining Medicare (PDF) When that ends, he will renew Medicaid and apply for MSP with his local district. Individuals who are eligible for Medicaid with a spenddown can opt whether or not to receive MSP. (Medicaid Reference Guide (MRG) p.

19). Obtaining MSP may increase their spenddown. MIPPA - Outreach by Social Security Administration -- Under MIPPA, the SSA sends a form letter to people who may be eligible for a Medicare Savings Program or Extra Help (Low Income Subsidy - LIS) that they may apply. The letters are.

· Beneficiary has Extra Help (LIS), but not MSP · Beneficiary has no Extra Help (LIS) or MSP 6. Enrolling in MSP for People Age 65+ who do Not have Free Medicare Part A - the "Part A Buy-In Program" Seniors WITHOUT MEDICARE PART A or B -- They may be able to enroll in the Part A Buy-In program, in which people eligible for QMB who are age 65+ who do not otherwise have Medicare Part A may enroll in Part A, with Medicaid paying the Part A premium. See Step-by-Step Guide by the Medicare Rights Center). This guide explains the various steps in "conditionally enrolling" in Part A at the SSA office, which must be done before applying for QMB at the Medicaid office, which will then pay the Part A premium.

See also GIS 04 MA/013. In June, 2018, the SSA revised the POMS manual procedures for the Part A Buy-In to to address inconsistencies and confusion in SSA field offices and help smooth the path for QMB enrollment. The procedures are in the POMS Section HI 00801.140 "Premium-Free Part A Enrollments for Qualified Medicare BenefiIaries." It includes important clarifications, such as. SSA Field Offices should explain the QMB program and conditional enrollment process if an individual lacks premium-free Part A and appears to meet QMB requirements.

SSA field offices can add notes to the “Remarks” section of the application and provide a screen shot to the individual so the individual can provide proof of conditional Part A enrollment when applying for QMB through the state Medicaid program. Beneficiaries are allowed to complete the conditional application even if they owe Medicare premiums. In Part A Buy-in states like NYS, SSA should process conditional applications on a rolling basis (without regard to enrollment periods), even if the application coincides with the General Enrollment Period. (The General Enrollment Period is from Jan 1 to March 31st every year, in which anyone eligible may enroll in Medicare Part A or Part B to be effective on July 1st).

7. What happens after the MSP approval - How is Part B premium paid For all three MSP programs, the Medicaid program is now responsible for paying the Part B premiums, even though the MSP enrollee is not necessarily a recipient of Medicaid. The local Medicaid office (DSS/HRA) transmits the MSP approval to the NYS Department of Health – that information gets shared w/ SSA and CMS SSA stops deducting the Part B premiums out of the beneficiary’s Social Security check. SSA also refunds any amounts owed to the recipient.

) CMS “deems” the MSP recipient eligible for Part D Extra Help/ Low Income Subsidy (LIS). ​Can the MSP be retroactive like Medicaid, back to 3 months before the application?. ​The answer is different for the 3 MSP programs. QMB -No Retroactive Eligibility – Benefits begin the month after the month of the MSP application.

18 NYCRR § 360-7.8(b)(5) SLIMB - YES - Retroactive Eligibility up to 3 months before the application, if was eligible This means applicant may be reimbursed for the 3 months of Part B benefits prior to the month of application. QI-1 - YES up to 3 months but only in the same calendar year. No retroactive eligibility to the previous year. 7.

QMBs -Special Rules on Cost-Sharing. QMB is the only MSP program which pays not only the Part B premium, but also the Medicare co-insurance. However, there are limitations. First, co-insurance will only be paid if the provide accepts Medicaid.

Does propecia lower blood pressure

NCHS Data does propecia lower blood pressure Brief how much does propecia cost per month No. 286, September 2017PDF Versionpdf icon (374 KB)Anjel Vahratian, Ph.D.Key findingsData from the National Health Interview Survey, 2015Among those aged 40–59, perimenopausal women (56.0%) were more likely than postmenopausal (40.5%) and premenopausal (32.5%) women to sleep less than 7 hours, on average, in a 24-hour period.Postmenopausal women aged 40–59 were more likely than premenopausal women aged 40–59 to have trouble falling asleep (27.1% compared with 16.8%, respectively), and staying asleep (35.9% compared with 23.7%), four times or more in the past week.Postmenopausal women aged 40–59 (55.1%) were more likely than premenopausal women aged 40–59 (47.0%) to not wake up feeling well rested 4 days or more in the past week.Sleep duration and quality are important contributors to health and wellness. Insufficient sleep is associated with an increased risk for chronic conditions such as cardiovascular does propecia lower blood pressure disease (1) and diabetes (2).

Women may be particularly vulnerable to sleep problems during times of reproductive hormonal change, such as after the menopausal transition. Menopause is “the permanent cessation does propecia lower blood pressure of menstruation that occurs after the loss of ovarian activity” (3). This data brief describes sleep duration and sleep quality among nonpregnant women aged 40–59 by menopausal status.

The age range selected for this analysis reflects the focus on midlife sleep health. In this analysis, 74.2% of women are premenopausal, 3.7% does propecia lower blood pressure are perimenopausal, and 22.1% are postmenopausal. Keywords.

Insufficient sleep, menopause, National Health Interview Survey Perimenopausal women were more likely than premenopausal and postmenopausal women to sleep less than 7 hours, on average, does propecia lower blood pressure in a 24-hour period.More than one in three nonpregnant women aged 40–59 slept less than 7 hours, on average, in a 24-hour period (35.1%) (Figure 1). Perimenopausal women were most likely to sleep less than 7 hours, on average, in a 24-hour period (56.0%), compared with 32.5% of premenopausal and 40.5% of postmenopausal women. Postmenopausal women were significantly more likely than premenopausal women to sleep less than 7 hours, on average, in a 24-hour period.

Figure 1 does propecia lower blood pressure. Percentage of nonpregnant women aged 40–59 who slept less than 7 hours, on average, in a 24-hour period, by menopausal status. United States, 2015image icon1Significant quadratic trend does propecia lower blood pressure by menopausal status (p <.

0.05).NOTES. Women were postmenopausal if they had gone without a menstrual cycle for more than 1 year or were in surgical menopause after the removal of their ovaries. Women were perimenopausal if they no longer had a menstrual cycle and does propecia lower blood pressure their last menstrual cycle was 1 year ago or less.

Women were premenopausal if they still had a menstrual cycle. Access data table does propecia lower blood pressure for Figure 1pdf icon.SOURCE. NCHS, National Health Interview Survey, 2015.

The percentage of women aged 40–59 who had trouble falling asleep four times or more in the past week varied by menopausal status.Nearly one in five nonpregnant women aged 40–59 had trouble falling asleep four times or more in the past week does propecia lower blood pressure (19.4%) (Figure 2). The percentage of women in this age group who had trouble falling asleep four times or more in the past week increased from 16.8% among premenopausal women to 24.7% among perimenopausal and 27.1% among postmenopausal women. Postmenopausal women were significantly more likely than premenopausal women to have trouble falling asleep four times or more in the past week.

Figure 2 does propecia lower blood pressure. Percentage of nonpregnant women aged 40–59 who had trouble falling asleep four times or more in the past week, by menopausal status. United States, does propecia lower blood pressure 2015image icon1Significant linear trend by menopausal status (p <.

0.05).NOTES. Women were postmenopausal if they had gone without a menstrual cycle for more than 1 year or were in surgical menopause after the removal of their ovaries. Women were perimenopausal if they no longer had a menstrual cycle and their last menstrual cycle was 1 year ago does propecia lower blood pressure or less.

Women were premenopausal if they still had a menstrual cycle. Access data does propecia lower blood pressure table for Figure 2pdf icon.SOURCE. NCHS, National Health Interview Survey, 2015.

The percentage of women aged 40–59 who had trouble staying asleep four times or more in the past week varied by menopausal status.More than one in four nonpregnant women aged 40–59 had trouble staying asleep four times does propecia lower blood pressure or more in the past week (26.7%) (Figure 3). The percentage of women aged 40–59 who had trouble staying asleep four times or more in the past week increased from 23.7% among premenopausal, to 30.8% among perimenopausal, and to 35.9% among postmenopausal women. Postmenopausal women were significantly more likely than premenopausal women to have trouble staying asleep four times or more in the past week.

Figure 3 does propecia lower blood pressure. Percentage of nonpregnant women aged 40–59 who had trouble staying asleep four times or more in the past week, by menopausal status. United States, 2015image icon1Significant linear trend by menopausal status does propecia lower blood pressure (p <.

0.05).NOTES. Women were postmenopausal if they had gone without a menstrual cycle for more than 1 year or were in surgical menopause after the removal of their ovaries. Women were perimenopausal if they does propecia lower blood pressure no longer had a menstrual cycle and their last menstrual cycle was 1 year ago or less.

Women were premenopausal if they still had a menstrual cycle. Access data table for Figure does propecia lower blood pressure 3pdf icon.SOURCE. NCHS, National Health Interview Survey, 2015.

The percentage of women aged 40–59 who did not wake up feeling well rested 4 days or more in the past week varied by menopausal status.Nearly one in two nonpregnant women aged 40–59 did not wake up feeling well rested 4 days or more in the past week (48.9%) (Figure 4). The percentage does propecia lower blood pressure of women in this age group who did not wake up feeling well rested 4 days or more in the past week increased from 47.0% among premenopausal women to 49.9% among perimenopausal and 55.1% among postmenopausal women. Postmenopausal women were significantly more likely than premenopausal women to not wake up feeling well rested 4 days or more in the past week.

Figure 4 does propecia lower blood pressure. Percentage of nonpregnant women aged 40–59 who did not wake up feeling well rested 4 days or more in the past week, by menopausal status. United States, 2015image icon1Significant linear trend by menopausal status (p <.

0.05).NOTES. Women were postmenopausal if they had gone without a menstrual cycle for more than 1 year or were in surgical menopause after the removal of their ovaries. Women were perimenopausal if they no longer had a menstrual cycle and their last menstrual cycle was 1 year ago or less.

Women were premenopausal if they still had a menstrual cycle. Access data table for Figure 4pdf icon.SOURCE. NCHS, National Health Interview Survey, 2015.

SummaryThis report describes sleep duration and sleep quality among U.S. Nonpregnant women aged 40–59 by menopausal status. Perimenopausal women were most likely to sleep less than 7 hours, on average, in a 24-hour period compared with premenopausal and postmenopausal women.

In contrast, postmenopausal women were most likely to have poor-quality sleep. A greater percentage of postmenopausal women had frequent trouble falling asleep, staying asleep, and not waking well rested compared with premenopausal women. The percentage of perimenopausal women with poor-quality sleep was between the percentages for the other two groups in all three categories.

Sleep duration changes with advancing age (4), but sleep duration and quality are also influenced by concurrent changes in women’s reproductive hormone levels (5). Because sleep is critical for optimal health and well-being (6), the findings in this report highlight areas for further research and targeted health promotion. DefinitionsMenopausal status.

A three-level categorical variable was created from a series of questions that asked women. 1) “How old were you when your periods or menstrual cycles started?. € http://www.ec-jean-monnet-selestat.ac-strasbourg.fr/ateliers-sportifs-dans-la-cour/.

2) “Do you still have periods or menstrual cycles?. €. 3) “When did you have your last period or menstrual cycle?.

€. And 4) “Have you ever had both ovaries removed, either as part of a hysterectomy or as one or more separate surgeries?. € Women were postmenopausal if they a) had gone without a menstrual cycle for more than 1 year or b) were in surgical menopause after the removal of their ovaries.

Women were perimenopausal if they a) no longer had a menstrual cycle and b) their last menstrual cycle was 1 year ago or less. Premenopausal women still had a menstrual cycle.Not waking feeling well rested. Determined by respondents who answered 3 days or less on the questionnaire item asking, “In the past week, on how many days did you wake up feeling well rested?.

€Short sleep duration. Determined by respondents who answered 6 hours or less on the questionnaire item asking, “On average, how many hours of sleep do you get in a 24-hour period?. €Trouble falling asleep.

Determined by respondents who answered four times or more on the questionnaire item asking, “In the past week, how many times did you have trouble falling asleep?. €Trouble staying asleep. Determined by respondents who answered four times or more on the questionnaire item asking, “In the past week, how many times did you have trouble staying asleep?.

€ Data source and methodsData from the 2015 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used for this analysis. NHIS is a multipurpose health survey conducted continuously throughout the year by the National Center for Health Statistics. Interviews are conducted in person in respondents’ homes, but follow-ups to complete interviews may be conducted over the telephone.

Data for this analysis came from the Sample Adult core and cancer supplement sections of the 2015 NHIS. For more information about NHIS, including the questionnaire, visit the NHIS website.All analyses used weights to produce national estimates. Estimates on sleep duration and quality in this report are nationally representative of the civilian, noninstitutionalized nonpregnant female population aged 40–59 living in households across the United States.

The sample design is described in more detail elsewhere (7). Point estimates and their estimated variances were calculated using SUDAAN software (8) to account for the complex sample design of NHIS. Linear and quadratic trend tests of the estimated proportions across menopausal status were tested in SUDAAN via PROC DESCRIPT using the POLY option.

Differences between percentages were evaluated using two-sided significance tests at the 0.05 level. About the authorAnjel Vahratian is with the National Center for Health Statistics, Division of Health Interview Statistics. The author gratefully acknowledges the assistance of Lindsey Black in the preparation of this report.

ReferencesFord ES. Habitual sleep duration and predicted 10-year cardiovascular risk using the pooled cohort risk equations among US adults. J Am Heart Assoc 3(6):e001454.

2014.Ford ES, Wheaton AG, Chapman DP, Li C, Perry GS, Croft JB. Associations between self-reported sleep duration and sleeping disorder with concentrations of fasting and 2-h glucose, insulin, and glycosylated hemoglobin among adults without diagnosed diabetes. J Diabetes 6(4):338–50.

2014.American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology. ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 141.

Management of menopausal symptoms. Obstet Gynecol 123(1):202–16. 2014.Black LI, Nugent CN, Adams PF.

Tables of adult health behaviors, sleep. National Health Interview Survey, 2011–2014pdf icon. 2016.Santoro N.

Perimenopause. From research to practice. J Women’s Health (Larchmt) 25(4):332–9.

2016.Watson NF, Badr MS, Belenky G, Bliwise DL, Buxton OM, Buysse D, et al. Recommended amount of sleep for a healthy adult. A joint consensus statement of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and Sleep Research Society.

J Clin Sleep Med 11(6):591–2. 2015.Parsons VL, Moriarity C, Jonas K, et al. Design and estimation for the National Health Interview Survey, 2006–2015.

National Center for Health Statistics. Vital Health Stat 2(165). 2014.RTI International.

SUDAAN (Release 11.0.0) [computer software]. 2012. Suggested citationVahratian A.

Sleep duration and quality among women aged 40–59, by menopausal status. NCHS data brief, no 286. Hyattsville, MD.

National Center for Health Statistics. 2017.Copyright informationAll material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission. Citation as to source, however, is appreciated.National Center for Health StatisticsCharles J.

Rothwell, M.S., M.B.A., DirectorJennifer H. Madans, Ph.D., Associate Director for ScienceDivision of Health Interview StatisticsMarcie L. Cynamon, DirectorStephen J.

Blumberg, Ph.D., Associate Director for Science.

NCHS Data http://carlfarrugia.com/sample-page/ Brief No propecia pill price. 286, September 2017PDF Versionpdf icon (374 KB)Anjel Vahratian, Ph.D.Key findingsData from the National Health Interview Survey, 2015Among those aged 40–59, perimenopausal women (56.0%) were more likely than postmenopausal (40.5%) and premenopausal (32.5%) women to sleep less than 7 hours, on average, in a 24-hour period.Postmenopausal women aged 40–59 were more likely than premenopausal women aged 40–59 to have trouble falling asleep (27.1% compared with 16.8%, respectively), and staying asleep (35.9% compared with 23.7%), four times or more in the past week.Postmenopausal women aged 40–59 (55.1%) were more likely than premenopausal women aged 40–59 (47.0%) to not wake up feeling well rested 4 days or more in the past week.Sleep duration and quality are important contributors to health and wellness. Insufficient sleep is propecia pill price associated with an increased risk for chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease (1) and diabetes (2). Women may be particularly vulnerable to sleep problems during times of reproductive hormonal change, such as after the menopausal transition. Menopause is “the permanent cessation of menstruation that occurs after the propecia pill price loss of ovarian activity” (3).

This data brief describes sleep duration and sleep quality among nonpregnant women aged 40–59 by menopausal status. The age range selected for this analysis reflects the focus on midlife sleep health. In this analysis, 74.2% of women are premenopausal, propecia pill price 3.7% are perimenopausal, and 22.1% are postmenopausal. Keywords. Insufficient sleep, menopause, National Health Interview Survey Perimenopausal women were more likely than premenopausal and postmenopausal women to sleep less than 7 hours, on average, in a 24-hour period.More than one in three nonpregnant women aged 40–59 slept less than 7 propecia pill price hours, on average, in a 24-hour period (35.1%) (Figure 1).

Perimenopausal women were most likely to sleep less than 7 hours, on average, in a 24-hour period (56.0%), compared with 32.5% of premenopausal and 40.5% of postmenopausal women. Postmenopausal women were significantly more likely than premenopausal women to sleep less than 7 hours, on average, in a 24-hour period. Figure 1 propecia pill price. Percentage of nonpregnant women aged 40–59 who slept less than 7 hours, on average, in a 24-hour period, by menopausal status. United States, 2015image icon1Significant quadratic trend by propecia pill price menopausal status (p <.

0.05).NOTES. Women were postmenopausal if they had gone without a menstrual cycle for more than 1 year or were in surgical menopause after the removal of their ovaries. Women were perimenopausal if they no longer had a menstrual cycle and their last menstrual cycle was propecia pill price 1 year ago or less. Women were premenopausal if they still had a menstrual cycle. Access data table propecia pill price for Figure 1pdf icon.SOURCE.

NCHS, National Health Interview Survey, 2015. The percentage of propecia pill price women aged 40–59 who had trouble falling asleep four times or more in the past week varied by menopausal status.Nearly one in five nonpregnant women aged 40–59 had trouble falling asleep four times or more in the past week (19.4%) (Figure 2). The percentage of women in this age group who had trouble falling asleep four times or more in the past week increased from 16.8% among premenopausal women to 24.7% among perimenopausal and 27.1% among postmenopausal women. Postmenopausal women were significantly more likely than premenopausal women to have trouble falling asleep four times or more in the past week. Figure 2 propecia pill price.

Percentage of nonpregnant women aged 40–59 who had trouble falling asleep four times or more in the past week, by menopausal status. United States, 2015image icon1Significant linear propecia pill price trend by menopausal status (p <. 0.05).NOTES. Women were postmenopausal if they had gone without a menstrual cycle for more than 1 year or were in surgical menopause after the removal of their ovaries. Women were perimenopausal if propecia pill price they no longer had a menstrual cycle and their last menstrual cycle was 1 year ago or less.

Women were premenopausal if they still had a menstrual cycle. Access data table for Figure 2pdf propecia pill price icon.SOURCE. NCHS, National Health Interview Survey, 2015. The percentage of women aged 40–59 who had trouble staying asleep four times propecia pill price or more in the past week varied by menopausal status.More than one in four nonpregnant women aged 40–59 had trouble staying asleep four times or more in the past week (26.7%) (Figure 3). The percentage of women aged 40–59 who had trouble staying asleep four times or more in the past week increased from 23.7% among premenopausal, to 30.8% among perimenopausal, and to 35.9% among postmenopausal women.

Postmenopausal women were significantly more likely than premenopausal women to have trouble staying asleep four times or more in the past week. Figure 3 propecia pill price. Percentage of nonpregnant women aged 40–59 who had trouble staying asleep four times or more in the past week, by menopausal status. United States, propecia pill price 2015image icon1Significant linear trend by menopausal status (p <. 0.05).NOTES.

Women were postmenopausal if they had gone without a menstrual cycle for more than 1 year or were in surgical menopause after the removal of their ovaries. Women were perimenopausal propecia pill price if they no longer had a menstrual cycle and their last menstrual cycle was 1 year ago or less. Women were premenopausal if they still had a menstrual cycle. Access data table for Figure propecia pill price 3pdf icon.SOURCE. NCHS, National Health Interview Survey, 2015.

The percentage of women aged 40–59 who did not wake up feeling well rested 4 days or more in the past week varied by menopausal status.Nearly one in two nonpregnant women aged 40–59 did not wake up feeling well rested 4 days or more in the past week (48.9%) (Figure 4). The percentage of women in this age group who did not wake up feeling well rested 4 days or more in the past week increased from 47.0% among premenopausal women to 49.9% among perimenopausal and 55.1% among postmenopausal women propecia pill price. Postmenopausal women were significantly more likely than premenopausal women to not wake up feeling well rested 4 days or more in the past week. Figure 4 propecia pill price. Percentage of nonpregnant women aged 40–59 who did not wake up feeling well rested 4 days or more in the past week, by menopausal status.

United States, 2015image icon1Significant linear trend by menopausal status (p <. 0.05).NOTES. Women were postmenopausal if they had gone without a menstrual cycle for more than 1 year or were in surgical menopause after the removal of their ovaries. Women were perimenopausal if they no longer had a menstrual cycle and their last menstrual cycle was 1 year ago or less. Women were premenopausal if they still had a menstrual cycle.

Access data table for Figure 4pdf icon.SOURCE. NCHS, National Health Interview Survey, 2015. SummaryThis report describes sleep duration and sleep quality among U.S. Nonpregnant women aged 40–59 by menopausal status. Perimenopausal women were most likely to sleep less than 7 hours, on average, in a 24-hour period compared with premenopausal and postmenopausal women.

In contrast, postmenopausal women were most likely to have poor-quality sleep. A greater percentage of postmenopausal women had frequent trouble falling asleep, staying asleep, and not waking well rested compared with premenopausal women. The percentage of perimenopausal women with poor-quality sleep was between the percentages for the other two groups in all three categories. Sleep duration changes with advancing age (4), but sleep duration and quality are also influenced by concurrent changes in women’s reproductive hormone levels (5). Because sleep is critical for optimal health and well-being (6), the findings in this report highlight areas for further research and targeted health promotion.

DefinitionsMenopausal status. A three-level categorical variable was created from a series of questions that asked women. 1) “How old were you when your periods or menstrual cycles started?. €. 2) “Do you still have periods or menstrual cycles?.

€. 3) “When did you have your last period or menstrual cycle?. €. And 4) “Have you ever had both ovaries removed, either as part of a hysterectomy or as one or more separate surgeries?. € Women were postmenopausal if they a) had gone without a menstrual cycle for more than 1 year or b) were in surgical menopause after the removal of their ovaries.

Women were perimenopausal if they a) no longer had a menstrual cycle and b) their last menstrual cycle was 1 year ago or less. Premenopausal women still had a menstrual cycle.Not waking feeling well rested. Determined by respondents who answered 3 days or less on the questionnaire item asking, “In the past week, on how many days did you wake up feeling well rested?. €Short sleep duration. Determined by respondents who answered 6 hours or less on the questionnaire item asking, “On average, how many hours of sleep do you get in a 24-hour period?.

€Trouble falling asleep. Determined by respondents who answered four times or more on the questionnaire item asking, “In the past week, how many times did you have trouble falling asleep?. €Trouble staying asleep. Determined by respondents who answered four times or more on the questionnaire item asking, “In the past week, how many times did you have trouble staying asleep?. € Data source and methodsData from the 2015 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used for this analysis.

NHIS is a multipurpose health survey conducted continuously throughout the year by the National Center for Health Statistics. Interviews are conducted in person in respondents’ homes, but follow-ups to complete interviews may be conducted over the telephone. Data for this analysis came from the Sample Adult core and cancer supplement sections of the 2015 NHIS. For more information about NHIS, including the questionnaire, visit the NHIS website.All analyses used weights to produce national estimates. Estimates on sleep duration and quality in this report are nationally representative of the civilian, noninstitutionalized nonpregnant female population aged 40–59 living in households across the United States.

The sample design is described in more detail elsewhere (7). Point estimates and their estimated variances were calculated using SUDAAN software (8) to account for the complex sample design of NHIS. Linear and quadratic trend tests of the estimated proportions across menopausal status were tested in SUDAAN via PROC DESCRIPT using the POLY option. Differences between percentages were evaluated using two-sided significance tests at the 0.05 level. About the authorAnjel Vahratian is with the National Center for Health Statistics, Division of Health Interview Statistics.

The author gratefully acknowledges the assistance of Lindsey Black in the preparation of this report. ReferencesFord ES. Habitual sleep duration and predicted 10-year cardiovascular risk using the pooled cohort risk equations among US adults. J Am Heart Assoc 3(6):e001454. 2014.Ford ES, Wheaton AG, Chapman DP, Li C, Perry GS, Croft JB.

Associations between self-reported sleep duration and sleeping disorder with concentrations of fasting and 2-h glucose, insulin, and glycosylated hemoglobin among adults without diagnosed diabetes. J Diabetes 6(4):338–50. 2014.American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology. ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 141.

Management of menopausal symptoms. Obstet Gynecol 123(1):202–16. 2014.Black LI, Nugent CN, Adams PF. Tables of adult health behaviors, sleep. National Health Interview Survey, 2011–2014pdf icon.

2016.Santoro N. Perimenopause. From research to practice. J Women’s Health (Larchmt) 25(4):332–9. 2016.Watson NF, Badr MS, Belenky G, Bliwise DL, Buxton OM, Buysse D, et al.

Recommended amount of sleep for a healthy adult. A joint consensus statement of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and Sleep Research Society. J Clin Sleep Med 11(6):591–2. 2015.Parsons VL, Moriarity C, Jonas K, et al. Design and estimation for the National Health Interview Survey, 2006–2015.

National Center for Health Statistics. Vital Health Stat 2(165). 2014.RTI International. SUDAAN (Release 11.0.0) [computer software]. 2012.

Suggested citationVahratian A. Sleep duration and quality among women aged 40–59, by menopausal status. NCHS data brief, no 286. Hyattsville, MD. National Center for Health Statistics.

2017.Copyright informationAll material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission. Citation as to source, however, is appreciated.National Center for Health StatisticsCharles J. Rothwell, M.S., M.B.A., DirectorJennifer H. Madans, Ph.D., Associate Director for ScienceDivision of Health Interview StatisticsMarcie L. Cynamon, DirectorStephen J.

Blumberg, Ph.D., Associate Director for Science.